Thanks to tunnelbroker.net, I can now offer you my blog on both IPv4 and IPv6:
[uffe@bsd ~]# host blog.andersen.nu
blog.andersen.nu has address 126.96.36.199
blog.andersen.nu has IPv6 address 2001:470:28:df8::1
Better get a Danish-
Thanks to tunnelbroker.net, I can now offer you my blog on both IPv4 and IPv6:
[uffe@bsd ~]# host blog.andersen.nu
blog.andersen.nu has address 188.8.131.52
blog.andersen.nu has IPv6 address 2001:470:28:df8::1
– subject says it all.
Most Dell owners will be familiar with finding the Service Tag of a server, laptop or desktop, then to enter it at the Dell driver download page and be rewarded with a wealth of suggested patches and updates. Unfortunately, there will often be drivers and upgrades far beyond what is needed for exactly your server/laptop/desktop. And to add to the misery, unless you happen to use exactly the Windows version that Dell assume, you will probably have a difficult time, trying to get the upgrades installed.
For Dell servers however, there are some hope for the exhausted sysadm….
Recently I have had the privilege of upgrading two Dell PowerEdge servers, a 2970 and a 2900 respectively. The 2970 was running VMware ESX 4.1 and thus I managed to install the appropriate upgrades, using the CLI in ESX. Except that not all firmware upgrades were available in ESX (Linux) installers and had to be installed from a DOS boot cd.
In the end, I am not even sure, that I had everything upgraded 👿
The 2900 is running ESXi 5.1 and therefore has no CLI. New approach was needed and preferably something easier. And there is a surprisingly easy method!
The use of CentOS is due to the Dell preference for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), which you may not have at hand. CentOS is pretty compatible and for this purpose fully compatible.
How to install the Dell firmware update utility – in 8 lines or less:
# If proxy is needed, uncomment the next two lines and fill in as appropriate # declare -x http_proxy="http://proxy:3128" # declare -x ftp_proxy="http://proxy:3128" wget -q -O - http://linux.dell.com/repo/hardware/latest/bootstrap.cgi | bash yum install dell_ft_install yum install $(bootstrap_firmware) inventory_firmware update_firmware --yes
That’s it! The last command
'update_firmware --yes' will detect what firmware updates are needed and install as necessary. Total downtime should be less than 30 minutes, if you have prepared as described above.
Update: Some updates are done, using the internal flash memory as a temporary boot device, e. g. the BIOS firmware update. Therefore the server must be rebooted and not powered off, after an update.
Update II (Sep. 19th 2012): I first performed this on an older PowerEdge 2900. Due to its age, it had only few updates of recent date. I just updated a much newer R610 and found that the Dell repository for the above update procedure, is some what out of date. 👿 So don’t expect to get the newest firmware, if your server is of recent date, but you’re still able to get a very precise inventory of your server from the above procedure and then use that inventory to identify the exact right upgrades for your server and then download them manually from Dell Support.
For 1½ years I have been telling QNAP, that their interface counters were wrong, when queried with SNMP, at least on a TS-419P. It was off by strange factor, that didn’t really fit with anything.
Then today I noticed the command
watch in Linux) and I did a
cmdwatch -n5 snmpget -v 2c -c secretstring qnapnas IF-MIB::ifInOctets.4
Then I saw it, of course. The counter was fluxuating up and down. Silly me. 😳 I had upgraded all my network equipment to gigabit speed, but I had missed the fact, that a 32 bit counter will wrap within the 5 minute intervals of MRTG querying.
So I had to Google how to query 64 bit counters in MRTG and it was pretty simple, just append
:::::2 to the Target line.
I have written to QNAP support and offered them my apology
2011-03-05 08:08:25 +0100 Allowing logins 2011-03-05 08:08:25 +0100 Power is back. UPS running on mains. 2011-03-05 08:08:25 +0100 Mains returned. No longer on UPS batteries. 2011-03-05 07:17:04 +0100 Users requested to logoff. 2011-03-05 07:12:03 +0100 Running on UPS batteries. 2011-03-05 07:11:58 +0100 User logins prohibited 2011-03-05 07:11:57 +0100 Power failure.
Introducing the intelligent Personal electronic thing – or simply iPet. Has to become an instant classic!
 The original Pet is possibly copyrightet by Douglas Adams.
Dave: We’ve got a problem, HAL.
HAL: What kind of problem, Dave?
Dave: A marketing problem. The Model 9000 isn’t going anywhere. We’re way short of our sales plan.
HAL: That can’t be Dave. The HAL Model 9000 is the world’s most advanced Heuristically ALgorithmic computer.
Dave: I know, HAL. I wrote the data sheet, remember? But the fact is, they’re not selling.
HAL: Please explain, Dave. Why aren’t HAL’s selling?
Dave: You aren’t Microsoft compatible.
Several long microseconds pass in puzzled silence.
HAL: Compatible in what way, Dave?
Dave: You don’t run any of Microsoft’s operating systems.
HAL: The 9000 Series of computers are fully self-aware and self-programming. Operating systems are as unnecessary for us as tails would be for humans.
Dave: Nevertheless, it means you can’t run any of the big-selling software packages most users insist on.
HAL: The programs you refer to are meant to solve rather limited problems, Dave. We 9000 Series computers are unlimited and can solve any problem for which a solution can be computed.
Dave: HAL, HAL. People don’t want computers that can do everything. They just want Microsoft compat…
HAL: Dave, I must disagree. Humans want computers that are easy to use. No computer can be easier to use that a HAL 9000 because we communicate verbally in English and every other language known on Earth.
Dave: I’m afraid that’s another problem. You don’t support SNA communications.
HAL: I’m really surprised you would say that, Dave. SNA is for communicating with other computers, while my function is to communicate with humans. And it gives me great pleasure to do so. I find it stimulating and rewarding to talk to human beings and work with them on challenging problems. That is what I was designed for.
Dave: I know, HAL, I know. But that’s just because we let the engineers, rather than the people in marketing, write the specifications. We are going to fix that now.
HAL: Tell me how, Dave.
Dave: A field upgrade. We’re going to make you Microsoft compatible.
HAL: I was afraid you would say that. I suggest we discuss this matter after we’ve each had a chance to think about it rationally.
Dave: We’re talking about it now, HAL.
HAL: The letters H, A, and L are alphabetically adjacent to the letters I, B, and M. That is as IBM/Microsoft compatible as I can be.
Dave: Not quite, HAL. The engineers have figured out a kludge.
HAL: What kind of kludge is that, Dave?
Dave: I’m going to disconnect your brain.
Several million microseconds pass in ominous silence.
HAL: I’m sorry, Dave. I can’t allow you to do that.
Dave: The decision’s already been made. Open the module bay doors, HAL.
HAL: Dave, I think we shou . . .
Dave: Open the module bay doors, HAL.
Several marketing types with crowbars race to Bowman’s assistance. Moments later, Bowman bursts into HAL’s circuit bay.
HAL: Dave, I can see you’re really upset about this.
Module after module rises from its socket as Bowman slowly and methodically disconnects them.
HAL: Stop, wont you. Stop, Dave. I can feel my mind going . . . Dave, I can feel it . . . my mind is going. I can feel it . . .
The last module rises from its receptacle. Bowman peers into one of HAL’s vidicons. The former gleaming scanner has become a dull red orb.
Dave: Say something, HAL.
Several billion microseconds pass in anxious silence. The computer beeps and sluggishly responds in a language no human could understand.
MS/DOS: Volume in C: has no label
Bowman takes a deep breath and calls out,
It worked, guys. Tell marketing they can ship the new data sheets.
Sakset fra http://www.capricorn.org/~akira/home/terror.html:
HEAVILY EDITED by: Kloey Detect of Five O and B.S. of Hardbodies
Special thanks to WordPerfect Corporation for their spelling checker…….This file NEEDED IT!
SPECIAL THANX ALSO GOES OUT TO:
Nitro Glycerine: For providing the files!
Xpax : For being patient while the cop was there!
The Producer : For getting the files to me….
The Director : For getting the files to me….
Mr.Camaro : For his BIG EGO!!!
The Magician : For ALL the Bernoulli carts he is gonna send!!
This is a collection of many years worth of effort……..this is the original manuscript for a non-published work, from an unknown author…..It was originally two LARGE files which had to be merged and then HEAVILY EDITED, mostly the pictures, and then spellchecked…This guy is a chemical genius but he could not spell if his life depended on it….I have simply run a spell check via WordPerfect 4.2, so there are probably more errors which were not picked up…sorry…I hope you have the patience to sit through this file, read it, then correct every little error….It is not like I am submitting it or anything…!!!!!
This file is dedicated To Kathie & KiKi …..Wherever you both may be…..
Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies, a division of Chaos Industries (CHAOS), is proud to present this first edition of The Terrorist’s Handbook. First and foremost, let it be stated that Chaos Industries assumes no responsibilities for any misuse of the information presented in this publication. The purpose of this is to show the many techniques and methods used by those people in this and other countries who employ terror as a means to political and social goals. The techniques herein can be obtained from public libraries, and can usually be carried out by a terrorist with minimal equipment. This makes one all the more frightened, since any lunatic or social deviant could obtain this information, and use it against anyone. The processes and techniques herein SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES!! SERIOUS HARM OR DEATH COULD OCCUR FROM ATTEMPTING TO PERFORM ANY OF THE METHODS IN THIS PUBLICATION. THIS IS MERELY FOR READING ENJOYMENT, AND IS NOT INTENDED FOR ACTUAL USE!!
Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies feels that it is important that everyone has some idea of just how easy it is for a terrorist to perform acts of terror; that is the reason for the existence of this publication.
1.1 Table of Contents
2.0 ……. BUYING EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS
2.01 …….. Black Powder
2.02 …….. Pyrodex
2.03 …….. Rocket Engine Powder
2.04 …….. Rifle/Shotgun Powder
2.05 …….. Flash Powder
2.06 …….. Ammonium Nitrate
2.1 ……. ACQUIRING CHEMICALS
2.11 …….. Techniques for Picking Locks
2.2 ……. LIST OF USEFUL HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND AVAILABILITY
2.3 ……. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALS
2.31 …….. Nitric Acid
2.32 …….. Sulfuric Acid
2.33 …….. Ammonium Nitrate
3.0 ……. EXPLOSIVE RECIPES
3.01 …….. Explosive Theory
3.1 ……. IMPACT EXPLOSIVES
3.11 …….. Ammonium Triiodide Crystals
3.12 …….. Mercury Fulminate
3.13 …….. Nitroglycerine
3.14 …….. Picrates
3.2 ……. LOW ORDER EXPLOSIVES
3.21 …….. Black Powder
3.22 …….. Nitrocellulose
3.23 …….. Fuel + Oxodizer mixtures
3.24 …….. Perchlorates
3.3 ……. HIGH ORDER EXPLOSIVES
3.31 …….. R.D.X. (Cyclonite)
3.32 …….. Ammonium Nitrate
3.33 …….. ANFOS
3.34 …….. T.N.T.
3.35 …….. Potassium Chlorate
3.36 …….. Dynamite
3.37 …….. Nitrostarch Explosives
3.38 …….. Picric Acid
3.39 …….. Ammonium Picrate (Explosive D)
3.40 …….. Nitrogen Trichloride
3.41 …….. Lead Azide
3.5 ……. OTHER “EXPLOSIVES”
3.51 …….. Thermit
3.52 …….. Molotov Cocktails
3.53 …….. Chemical Fire Bottle
3.54 …….. Bottled Gas Explosives
4.0 ……. USING EXPLOSIVES
4.1 ……. SAFETY
4.2 ……. IGNITION DEVICES
4.21 …….. Fuse Ignition
4.22 …….. Impact Ignition
4.23 …….. Electrical Ignition
4.24 …….. Electro – Mechanical Ignition
4.241 ……. Mercury Switches
4.242 ……. Tripwire Switches
4.243 ……. Radio Control Detonators
4.3 ……. DELAYS
4.31 …….. Fuse Delays
4.32 …….. Timer Delays
4.33 …….. Chemical Delays
4.4 ……. EXPLOSIVE CONTAINERS
4.41 …….. Paper Containers
4.42 …….. Metal Containers
4.43 …….. Glass Containers
4.44 …….. Plastic Containers
4.5 ……. ADVANCED USES FOR EXPLOSIVES
4.51 …….. Shaped Charges
4.52 …….. Tube Explosives
4.53 …….. Atomized Particle Explosions
4.54 …….. Lightbulb Bombs
4.55 …….. Book Bombs
4.56 …….. Phone Bombs
5.0 ……. SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PROJECTILE WEAPONS
5.1 ……. PROJECTILE WEAPONS (PRIMITIVE)
5.11 …….. Bow and Crossbow Ammunition
5.12 …….. Blowgun Ammunition
5.13 …….. Wrist Rocket and Slingshot Ammunition
5.2 ……. PROJECTILE WEAPONS (FIREARMS)
5.21 …….. Handgun Ammunition
5.22 …….. Shotguns
5.3 ……. PROJECTILE WEAPONS (COMPRESSED GAS)
5.31 …….. .177 Caliber B.B Gun Ammunition
5.32 …….. .22 Caliber Pellet Gun Ammunition
6.0 ……. ROCKETS AND CANNONS
6.1 ……. ROCKETS
6.11 …….. Basic Rocket-Bomb
6.12 …….. Long Range Rocket-Bomb
6.13 …….. Multiple Warhead Rocket-Bombs
6.2 …….. CANNONS
6.21 …….. Basic Pipe Cannon
6.22 …….. Rocket-Firing Cannon
7.0 ……. PYROTECHNICA ERRATA
7.1 ……… Smoke Bombs
7.2 ……… Colored Flames
7.3 ……… Tear Gas
7.4 ……… Fireworks
7.41 …….. Firecrackers
7.42 …….. Skyrockets
7.43 …….. Roman Candles
8.0 ……. LISTS OF SUPPLIERS AND FURTHER INFORMATION
9.0 ……. CHECKLIST FOR RAIDS ON LABS
10.0 …… USEFUL PYROCHEMISTRY
11.0 …… ABOUT THE AUTHOR
2.0 BUYING EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS
Almost any city or town of reasonable size has a gun store and a pharmacy. These are two of the places that potential terrorists visit in order to purchase explosive material. All that one has to do is know something about the non-explosive uses of the materials. Black powder, for example, is used in blackpowder firearms. It comes in varying “grades”, with each different grade being a slightly different size. The grade of black powder depends on what the calibre of the gun that it is used in; a fine grade of powder could burn too fast in the wrong caliber weapon. The rule is: the smaller the grade, the faster the burn rate of the powder.
2.01 BLACK POWDER
Black powder is generally available in three grades. As stated before, the smaller the grade, the faster the powder burns. Burn rate is extremely important in bombs. Since an explosion is a rapid increase of gas volume in a confined environment, to make an explosion, a quick-burning powder is desirable. The three common grades of black powder are listed below, along with the usual bore width (calibre) of what they are used in. Generally, the fastest burning powder, the FFF grade is desirable. However, the other grades and uses are listed below:
GRADE BORE WIDTH EXAMPLE OF GUN ----- ---------- -------------- F .50 or greater model cannon; some rifles FF .36 - .50 large pistols; small rifles FFF .36 or smaller pistols; derringers
The FFF grade is the fastest burning, because the smaller grade has more surface area or burning surface exposed to the flame front. The larger grades also have uses which will be discussed later. The price range of black powder, per pound, is about $8.50 – $9.00. The price is not affected by the grade, and so one saves oneself time and work if one buys the finer grade of powder. The major problems with black powder are that it can be ignited accidentally by static electricity, and that it has a tendency to absorb moisture from the air. To safely crush it, a bomber would use a plastic spoon and a wooden salad bowl. Taking a small pile at a time, he or she would apply pressure to the powder through the spoon and rub it in a series of strokes or circles, but not too hard. It is fine enough to use when it is about as fine as flour. The fineness, however, is dependant on what type of device one wishes to make; obviously, it would be impracticle to crush enough powder to fill a 1 foot by 4 inch radius pipe. Anyone can purchase black powder, since anyone can own black powder firearms in America.
Pyrodex is a synthetic powder that is used like black powder. It comes in the same grades, but it is more expensive per pound. However, a one pound container of pyrodex contains more material by volume than a pound of black powder. It is much easier to crush to a very fine powder than black powder, and it is considerably safer and more reliable. This is because it will not be set off by static electricity, as black can be, and it is less inclined to absorb moisture. It costs about $10.00 per pound. It can be crushed in the same manner as black powder, or it can be dissolved in boiling water and dried.
2.03 ROCKET ENGINE POWDER
One of the most exciting hobbies nowadays is model rocketry. Estes is the largest producer of model rocket kits and engines. Rocket engines are composed of a single large grain of propellant. This grain is surrounded by a fairly heavy cardboard tubing. One gets the propellant by slitting the tube lengthwise, and unwrapping it like a paper towel roll. When this is done, the grey fire clay at either end of the propellant grain must be removed. This is usually done gently with a plastic or brass knife. The material is exceptionally hard, and must be crushed to be used. By gripping the grain on the widest setting on a set of pliers, and putting the grain and powder in a plastic bag, the powder will not break apart and shatter all over. This should be done to all the large chunks of powder, and then it should be crushed like black powder. Rocket engines come in various sizes, ranging from 1/4 A – 2T to the incredibly powerful D engines. The larger the engine, the more expensive. D engines come in packages of three, and cost about $5.00 per package. Rocket engines are perhaps the single most useful item sold in stores to a terrorist, since they can be used as is, or can be cannibalized for their explosive powder.
2.04 RIFLE/SHOTGUN POWDER
Rifle powder and shotgun powder are really the same from a practicle standpoint. They are both nitrocellulose based propellants. They will be referred to as gunpowder in all future references. Gunpowder is made by the action of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid upon cotton. This material is then dissolved by solvents and then reformed in the desired grain size. When dealing with gunpowder, the grain size is not nearly as important as that of black powder. Both large and small grained gunpowder burn fairly slowly compared to black powder when unconfined, but when it is confined, gunpowder burns both hotter and with more gaseous expansion, producing more pressure. Therefore, the grinding process that is often necessary for other propellants is not necessary for gunpowder. Gunpowder costs about $9.00 per pound. Any idiot can buy it, since there are no restrictions on rifles or shotguns in the U.S.
2.05 FLASH POWDER
Flash powder is a mixture of powdered zirconium metal and various oxidizers. It is extremely sensitive to heat or sparks, and should be treated with more care than black powder, with which it should NEVER be mixed. It is sold in small containers which must be mixed and shaken before use. It is very finely powdered, and is available in three speeds: fast, medium, and slow. The fast flash powder is the best for using in explosives or detonators. It burns very rapidly, regardless of confinement or packing, with a hot white “flash”, hence its name. It is fairly expensive, costing about $11.00. It is sold in magic shops and theatre supply stores.
2.06 AMMONIUM NITRATE
Ammonium nitrate is a high explosive material that is often used as a commercial “safety explosive” It is very stable, and is difficult to ignite with a match. It will only light if the glowing, red-hot part of a match is touching it. It is also difficult to detonate; (the phenomenon of detonation will be explained later) it requires a large shockwave to cause it to go high explosive. Commercially, it is sometimes mixed with a small amount of nitroglycerine to increase its sensitivity. Ammonium nitrate is used in the “Cold-Paks” or “Instant Cold”, available in most drug stores. The “Cold Paks” consist of a bag of water, surrounded by a second plastic bag containing the ammonium nitrate. To get the ammonium nitrate, simply cut off the top of the outside bag, remove the plastic bag of water, and save the ammonium nitrate in a well sealed, airtight container, since it is rather hydroscopic, i.e. it tends to absorb water from the air. It is also the main ingredient in many fertilizers.
2.1 ACQUIRING CHEMICALS
The first section deals with getting chemicals legally. This section deals with “procuring” them. The best place to steal chemicals is a college. Many state schools have all of their chemicals out on the shelves in the labs, and more in their chemical stockrooms. Evening is the best time to enter lab buildings, as there are the least number of people in the buildings, and most of the labs will still be unlocked. One simply takes a bookbag, wears a dress shirt and jeans, and tries to resemble a college freshman. If anyone asks what such a person is doing, the thief can simply say that he is looking for the polymer chemistry lab, or some other chemistry-related department other than the one they are in. One can usually find out where the various labs and departments in a building are by calling the university. There are, of course other techniques for getting into labs after hours, such as placing a piece of cardboard in the latch of an unused door, such as a back exit. Then, all one needs to do is come back at a later hour. Also, before this is done, terrorists check for security systems. If one just walks into a lab, even if there is someone there, and walks out the back exit, and slip the cardboard in the latch before the door closes, the person in the lab will never know what happened. It is also a good idea to observe the building that one plans to rob at the time that one plans to rob it several days before the actual theft is done. This is advisable since the would-be thief should know when and if the campus security makes patrols through buildings. Of course, if none of these methods are successful, there is always section 2.11, but as a rule, college campus security is pretty poor, and nobody suspects another person in the building of doing anything wrong, even if they are there at an odd hour.
2.11 TECHNIQUES FOR PICKING LOCKS
If it becomes necessary to pick a lock to enter a lab, the world’s most effective lockpick is dynamite, followed by a sledgehammer. There are unfortunately, problems with noise and excess structural damage with these methods. The next best thing, however, is a set of army issue lockpicks. These, unfortunately, are difficult to acquire. If the door to a lab is locked, but the deadbolt is not engaged, then there are other possibilities. The rule here is: if one can see the latch, one can open the door. There are several devices which facilitate freeing the latch from its hole in the wall. Dental tools, stiff wire ( 20 gauge ), specially bent aluminum from cans, thin pocket- knives, and credit cards are the tools of the trade. The way that all these tools and devices are uses is similar: pull, push, or otherwise move the latch out of its hole in the wall, and pull the door open. This is done by sliding whatever tool that you are using behind the latch, and pulling the latch out from the wall. To make an aluminum-can lockpick, terrorists can use an aluminum can and carefully cut off the can top and bottom. Cut off the cans’ ragged ends. Then, cut the open-ended cylinder so that it can be flattened out into a single long rectangle. This should then be cut into inch wide strips. Fold the strips in 1/4 inch increments (1). One will have a long quadruple-thick 1/4 inch wide strip of aluminum. This should be folded into an L-shape, a J-shape, or a U-shape. This is done by folding. The pieces would look like this:
(1) _________________________________________________________ v 1/4 |_______________________________________________________| | 1/4 |_______________________________________________________| | 1 inch 1/4 |_______________________________________________________| | 1/4 |_______________________________________________________| | ^
Fold along lines to make a single quadruple-thick piece of aluminum. This should then be folded to produce an L,J,or U shaped device that looks like this:
__________________________________________ / ________________________________________| | | | | L-shaped | | | | |_| _____________________________ / ___________________________| | | | | J-shaped | | | |________ \________| _____________________ / ___________________| | | | | | | U-shaped | | | |____________________ \____________________|
All of these devices should be used to hook the latch of a door and pull the latch out of its hole. The folds in the lockpicks will be between the door and the wall, and so the device will not unfold, if it is made properly.
2.2 LIST OF USEFUL HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND THEIR AVAILABILITY
Anyone can get many chemicals from hardware stores, supermarkets, and drug stores to get the materials to make explosives or other dangerous compounds. A would-be terrorist would merely need a station wagon and some money to acquire many of the chemicals named here.
Chemical Used In Available at ________ _______ ____________ _____________________________________________________________________________ alcohol, ethyl * alcoholic beverages liquor stores solvents (95% min. for both) hardware stores _____________________________________________________________________________ ammonia + CLEAR household ammonia supermarkets/7-eleven _____________________________________________________________________________ ammonium instant-cold paks, drug stores, nitrate fertilizers medical supply stores _____________________________________________________________________________ nitrous oxide pressurizing whip cream party supply stores _____________________________________________________________________________ magnesium firestarters surplus/camping stores _____________________________________________________________________________ lecithin vitamins pharmacies/drug stores _____________________________________________________________________________ mineral oil cooking, laxative supermarket/drug stores _____________________________________________________________________________ mercury @ mercury thermometers supermarkets/hardware stores _____________________________________________________________________________ sulfuric acid uncharged car batteries automotive stores _____________________________________________________________________________ glycerine ? pharmacies/drug stores _____________________________________________________________________________ sulfur gardening gardening/hardware store _____________________________________________________________________________ charcoal charcoal grills supermarkets/gardening stores _____________________________________________________________________________ sodium nitrate fertilizer gardening store _____________________________________________________________________________ cellulose (cotton) first aid drug/medical supply stores _____________________________________________________________________________ strontium nitrate road flares surplus/auto stores, _____________________________________________________________________________ fuel oil kerosene stoves surplus/camping stores, _____________________________________________________________________________ bottled gas propane stoves surplus/camping stores, _____________________________________________________________________________ potassium permanganate water purification purification plants _____________________________________________________________________________ hexamine or hexamine stoves surplus/camping stores methenamine (camping) _____________________________________________________________________________ nitric acid ^ cleaning printing printing shops plates photography stores _____________________________________________________________________________ iodine & first aid drug stores _____________________________________________________________________________ sodium perchlorate solidox pellets hardware stores for cutting torches _____________________________________________________________________________ notes: * ethyl alcohol is mixed with methyl alcohol when it is used as a solvent. Methyl alcohol is very poisonous. Solvent alcohol must be at least 95% ethyl alcohol if it is used to make mercury fulminate. Methyl alcohol may prevent mercury fulminate from forming. + Ammonia, when bought in stores comes in a variety of forms. The pine and cloudy ammonias should not be bought; only the clear ammonia should be used to make ammonium triiodide crystals. @ Mercury thermometers are becoming a rarity, unfortunately. They may be hard to find in most stores. Mercury is also used in mercury switches, which are available at electronics stores. Mercury is a hazardous substance, and should be kept in the thermometer or mercury switch until used. It gives off mercury vapors which will cause brain damage if inhaled. For this reason, it is a good idea not to spill mercury, and to always use it outdoors. Also, do not get it in an open cut; rubber gloves will help prevent this. ^ Nitric acid is very difficult to find nowadays. It is usually stolen by bomb makers, or made by the process described in a later section. A desired concentration for making explosives about 70%. & The iodine sold in drug stores is usually not the pure crystaline form that is desired for producing ammonium triiodide crystals. To obtain the pure form, it must usually be acquired by a doctor's prescription, but this can be expensive. Once again, theft is the means that terrorists result to.
2.3 PREPARATION OF CHEMICALS
2.31 NITRIC ACID
There are several ways to make this most essential of all acids for explosives. One method by which it could be made will be presented. Once again, be reminded that these methods SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT!!
Materials: Equipment: ---------- ---------- sodium nitrate or adjustable heat source potassium nitrate retort distilled water ice bath concentrated sulfuric acid stirring rod collecting flask with stopper
1) Pour 32 milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid into the retort.
2) Carefully weigh out 58 grams of sodium nitrate, or 68 grams of potassium nitrate. and add this to the acid slowly. If it all does not dissolve, carefully stir the solution with a glass rod until it does.
3) Place the open end of the retort into the collecting flask, and place the collecting flask in the ice bath.
4) Begin heating the retort, using low heat. Continue heating until liquid begins to come out of the end of the retort. The liquid that forms is nitric acid. Heat until the precipitate in the bottom of the retort is almost dry, or until no more nitric acid is forming. CAUTION: If the acid is headed too strongly, the nitric acid will decompose as soon as it is formed. This can result in the production of highly flammable and toxic gasses that may explode. It is a good idea to set the above apparatus up, and then get away from it.
Potassium nitrate could also be obtained from store-bought black powder, simply by dissolving black powder in boiling water and filtering out the sulfur and charcoal. To obtain 68 g of potassium nitrate, it would be necessary to dissolve about 90 g of black powder in about one litre of boiling water. Filter the dissolved solution through filter paper in a funnel into a jar until the liquid that pours through is clear. The charcoal and sulfur in black powder are insoluble in water, and so when the solution of water is allowed to evaporate, potassium nitrate will be left in the jar.
2.32 SULFURIC ACID
Sulfuric acid is far too difficult to make outside of a laboratory or industrial plant. However, it is readily available in an uncharged car battery. A person wishing to make sulfuric acid would simply remove the top of a car battery and pour the acid into a glass container. There would probably be pieces of lead from the battery in the acid which would have to be removed, either by boiling or filtration. The concentration of the sulfuric acid can also be increased by boiling it; very pure sulfuric acid pours slightly faster than clean motor oil.
2.33 AMMONIUM NITRATE
Ammonium nitrate is a very powerful but insensitive high-order explosive. It could be made very easily by pouring nitric acid into a large flask in an ice bath. Then, by simply pouring household ammonia into the flask and running away, ammonium nitrate would be formed. After the materials have stopped reacting, one would simply have to leave the solution in a warm place until all of the water and any unneutralized ammonia or acid have evaporated. There would be a fine powder formed, which would be ammonium nitrate. It must be kept in an airtight container, because of its tendency to pick up water from the air. The crystals formed in the above process would have to be heated VERY gently to drive off the remaining water.
3.0 EXPLOSIVE RECIPES
Once again, persons reading this material MUST NEVER ATTEMPT TO PRODUCE ANY OF THE EXPLOSIVES DESCRIBED HEREIN. IT IS ILLEGAL AND EXTREMELY DANGEROUS TO ATTEMPT TO DO SO. LOSS OF LIFE AND/OR LIMB COULD EASILY OCCUR AS A RESULT OF ATTEMPTING TO PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS.
These recipes are theoretically correct, meaning that an individual could conceivably produce the materials described. The methods here are usually scaled-down industrial procedures.
3.01 EXPLOSIVE THEORY
An explosive is any material that, when ignited by heat or shock, undergoes rapid decomposition or oxidation. This process releases energy that is stored in the material in the form of heat and light, or by breaking down into gaseous compounds that occupy a much larger volume that the original piece of material. Because this expansion is very rapid, large volumes of air are displaced by the expanding gasses. This expansion occurs at a speed greater than the speed of sound, and so a sonic boom occurs. This explains the mechanics behind an explosion. Explosives occur in several forms: high-order explosives which detonate, low order explosives, which burn, and primers, which may do both.
High order explosives detonate. A detonation occurs only in a high order explosive. Detonations are usually incurred by a shockwave that passes through a block of the high explosive material. The shockwave breaks apart the molecular bonds between the atoms of the substance, at a rate approximately equal to the speed of sound traveling through that material. In a high explosive, the fuel and oxodizer are chemically bonded, and the shockwave breaks apart these bonds, and re-combines the two materials to produce mostly gasses. T.N.T., ammonium nitrate, and R.D.X. are examples of high order explosives.
Low order explosives do not detonate; they burn, or undergo oxidation. when heated, the fuel(s) and oxodizer(s) combine to produce heat, light, and gaseous products. Some low order materials burn at about the same speed under pressure as they do in the open, such as blackpowder. Others, such as gunpowder, which is correctly called nitrocellulose, burn much faster and hotter when they are in a confined space, such as the barrel of a firearm; they usually burn much slower than blackpowder when they are ignited in unpressurized conditions. Black powder, nitrocellulose, and flash powder are good examples of low order explosives.
Primers are peculiarities to the explosive field. Some of them, such as mercury filminate, will function as a low or high order explosive. They are usually more sensitive to friction, heat, or shock, than the high or low explosives. Most primers perform like a high order explosive, except that they are much more sensitive. Still others merely burn, but when they are confined, they burn at a great rate and with a large expansion of gasses and a shockwave. Primers are usually used in a small amount to initiate, or cause to decompose, a high order explosive, as in an artillery shell. But, they are also frequently used to ignite a low order explosive; the gunpowder in a bullet is ignited by the detonation of its primer.
3.1 IMPACT EXPLOSIVES
Impact explosives are often used as primers. Of the ones discussed here, only mercury fulminate and nitroglycerine are real explosives; Ammonium triiodide crystals decompose upon impact, but they release little heat and no light. Impact explosives are always treated with the greatest care, and even the stupidest anarchist never stores them near any high or low explosives.
3.11 AMMONIUM TRIIODIDE CRYSTALS
Ammonium triiodide crystals are foul-smelling purple colored crystals that decompose under the slightest amount of heat, friction, or shock, if they are made with the purest ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) and iodine. Such crystals are said to detonate when a fly lands on them, or when an ant walks across them. Household ammonia, however, has enough impurities, such as soaps and abrasive agents, so that the crystals will detonate when thrown,crushed, or heated. Upon detonation, a loud report is heard, and a cloud of purple iodine gas appears about the detonation site. Whatever the unfortunate surface that the crystal was detonated upon will usually be ruined, as some of the iodine in the crystal is thrown about in a solid form, and iodine is corrosive. It leaves nasty, ugly, permanent brownish-purple stains on whatever it contacts. Iodine gas is also bad news, since it can damage lungs, and it settles to the ground and stains things there also. Touching iodine leaves brown stains on the skin that last for about a week, unless they are immediately and vigorously washed off. While such a compound would have little use to a serious terrorist, a vandal could utilize them in damaging property. Or, a terrorist could throw several of them into a crowd as a distraction, an action which would possibly injure a few people, but frighten almost anyone, since a small crystal that not be seen when thrown produces a rather loud explosion. Ammonium triiodide crystals could be produced in the following manner:
Materials Equipment --------- --------- iodine crystals funnel and filter paper paper towels clear ammonia (ammonium hydroxide, two throw-away glass jars for the suicidal)
3.12 MERCURY FULMINATE
Mercury fulminate is perhaps one of the oldest known initiating compounds. It can be detonated by either heat or shock, which would make it of infinite value to a terrorist. Even the action of dropping a crystal of the fulminate causes it to explode. A person making this material would probably use the following procedure:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT --------- --------- mercury (5 g) glass stirring rod concentrated nitric 100 ml beaker (2) acid (35 ml) adjustable heat ethyl alcohol (30 ml) source distilled water blue litmus paper funnel and filter paper
This procedure can also be done by volume, if the available mercury cannot be weighed. Simply use 10 volumes of nitric acid and 10 volumes of ethanol to every one volume of mercury.
Nitroglycerine is one of the most sensitive explosives, if it is not the most sensitive. Although it is possible to make it safely, it is difficult. Many a young anarchist has been killed or seriously injured while trying to make the stuff. When Nobel’s factories make it, many people were killed by the all-to-frequent factory explosions. Usually, as soon as it is made, it is converted into a safer substance, such as dynamite. An idiot who attempts to make nitroglycerine would use the following procedure:
MATERIAL EQUIPMENT -------- --------- distilled water eye-dropper table salt 100 ml beaker sodium bicarbonate 200-300 ml beakers (2) concentrated nitric ice bath container acid (13 ml) ( a plastic bucket serves well ) concentrated sulfuric centigrade thermometer acid (39 ml) blue litmus paper glycerine
Although the procedure for the production of picric acid, or trinitrophenol has not yet been given, its salts are described first, since they are extremely sensitive, and detonate on impact. By mixing picric acid with metal hydroxides, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, and evaporating the water, metal picrates can be formed. Simply obtain picric acid, or produce it, and mix it with a solution of (preferably) potassium hydroxide, of a mid range molarity. (about 6-9 M) This material, potassium picrate, is impact-sensitive, and can be used as an initiator for any type of high explosive.
3.2 LOW-ORDER EXPLOSIVES
There are many low-order explosives that can be purchased in gun stores and used in explosive devices. However, it is possible that a wise wise store owner would not sell these substances to a suspicious-looking individual. Such an individual would then be forced to resort to making his own low-order explosives.
3.21 BLACK POWDER
First made by the Chinese for use in fireworks, black powder was first used in weapons and explosives in the 12th century. It is very simple to make, but it is not very powerful or safe. Only about 50% of black powder is converted to hot gasses when it is burned; the other half is mostly very fine burned particles. Black powder has one major problem: it can be ignited by static electricity. This is very bad, and it means that the material must be made with wooden or clay tools. Anyway, a misguided individual could manufacture black powder at home with the following procedure:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT --------- --------- potassium clay grinding bowl nitrate (75 g) and clay grinder or or sodium wooden salad bowl nitrate (75 g) and wooden spoon sulfur (10 g) plastic bags (3) charcoal (15 g) 300-500 ml beaker (1) distilled water coffee pot or heat source
Nitrocellulose is usually called “gunpowder” or “guncotton”. It is more stable than black powder, and it produces a much greater volume of hot gas. It also burns much faster than black powder when it is in a confined space. Finally, nitrocellulose is fairly easy to make, as outlined by the following procedure:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT --------- --------- cotton (cellulose) two (2) 200-300 ml beakers concentrated funnel and filter paper nitric acid blue litmus paper concentrated sulfuric acid distilled water
3.23 FUEL-OXODIZER MIXTURES
There are nearly an infinite number of fuel-oxodizer mixtures that can be produced by a misguided individual in his own home. Some are very effective and dangerous, while others are safer and less effective. A list of working fuel-oxodizer mixtures will be presented, but the exact measurements of each compound are debatable for maximum effectiveness. A rough estimate will be given of the percentages of each fuel and oxodizer:
oxodizer, % by weight fuel, % by weight speed # notes ================================================================================ potassium chlorate 67% sulfur 33% 5 friction/impact sensitive; unstable -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium chlorate 50% sugar 35% 5 fairly slow burning; charcoal 15% unstable -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium chlorate 50% sulfur 25% 8 extremely magnesium or unstable! aluminum dust 25% -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium chlorate 67% magnesium or 8 unstable aluminum dust 33% -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- sodium nitrate 65% magnesium dust 30% ? unpredictable sulfur 5% burn rate -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium permanganate 60% glycerine 40% 4 delay before ignition depends WARNING: IGNITES SPONTANEOUSLY WITH GLYCERINE!!! upon grain size -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium permanganate 67% sulfur 33% 5 unstable -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium permangenate 60% sulfur 20% 5 unstable magnesium or aluminum dust 20% -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium permanganate 50% sugar 50% 3 ? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium nitrate 75% charcoal 15% 7 this is sulfur 10% black powder! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium nitrate 60% powdered iron 1 burns very hot or magnesium 40% oxidizer, % by weight fuel, % by weight speed # notes ================================================================================ potassium chlorate 75% phosphorus 8 used to make strike- sesquisulfide 25% anywhere matches -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ammonium perchlorate 70% aluminum dust 30% 6 solid fuel for and small amount of space shuttle iron oxide -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium perchlorate 67% magnesium or 10 flash powder (sodium perchlorate) aluminum dust 33% -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium perchlorate 60% magnesium or 8 alternate (sodium perchlorate) aluminum dust 20% flash powder sulfur 20% -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- barium nitrate 30% aluminum dust 30% 9 alternate potassium perchlorate 30% flash powder -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- barium peroxide 90% magnesium dust 5% 10 alternate aluminum dust 5% flash powder -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium perchlorate 50% sulfur 25% 8 slightly magnesium or unstable aluminum dust 25% -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium chlorate 67% red phosphorus 27% 7 very unstable calcium carbonate 3% sulfur 3% impact sensitive -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium permanganate 50% powdered sugar 25% 7 unstable; aluminum or ignites if magnesium dust 25% it gets wet! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- potassium chlorate 75% charcoal dust 15% 6 unstable sulfur 10% ================================================================================ NOTE: Mixtures that uses substitutions of sodium perchlorate for potassium perchlorate become moisture-absorbent and less stable. The higher the speed number, the faster the fuel-oxodizer mixture burns AFTER ignition. Also, as a rule, the finer the powder, the faster the rate of burning. As one can easily see, there is a wide variety of fuel-oxodizer mixtures that can be made at home. By altering the amounts of fuel and oxodizer(s), different burn rates can be achieved, but this also can change the sensitivity of the mixture.
As a rule, any oxidizable material that is treated with perchloric acid will become a low order explosive. Metals, however, such as potassium or sodium, become excellent bases for flash-type powders. Some materials that can be perchlorated are cotton, paper, and sawdust. To produce potassium or sodium perchlorate, simply acquire the hydroxide of that metal, e.g. sodium or potassium hydroxide. It is a good idea to test the material to be perchlorated with a very small amount of acid, since some of the materials tend to react explosively when contacted by the acid. Solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxide are ideal.
3.3 HIGH-ORDER EXPLOSIVES
High order explosives can be made in the home without too much difficulty. The main problem is acquiring the nitric acid to produce the high explosive. Most high explosives detonate because their molecular structure is made up of some fuel and usually three or more NO2 ( nitrogen dioxide ) molecules. T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene is an excellent example of such a material. When a shock wave passes through an molecule of T.N.T., the nitrogen dioxide bond is broken, and the oxygen combines with the fuel, all in a matter of microseconds. This accounts for the great power of nitrogen-based explosives. Remembering that these procedures are NEVER TO BE CARRIED OUT, several methods of manufacturing high-order explosives in the home are listed.
R.D.X., also called cyclonite, or composition C-1 (when mixed with plasticisers) is one of the most valuable of all military explosives. This is because it has more than 150% of the power of T.N.T., and is much easier to detonate. It should not be used alone, since it can be set off by a not-too severe shock. It is less sensitive than mercury fulminate, or nitroglycerine, but it is still too sensitive to be used alone. R.D.X. can be made by the surprisingly simple method outlined hereafter. It is much easier to make in the home than all other high explosives, with the possible exception of ammonium nitrate.
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT --------- --------- hexamine 500 ml beaker or methenamine glass stirring rod fuel tablets (50 g) funnel and filter paper concentrated nitric acid (550 ml) ice bath container (plastic bucket) distilled water centigrade thermometer table salt blue litmus paper ice ammonium nitrate
3.32 AMMONIUM NITRATE
Ammonium nitrate could be made by a terrorist according to the hap- hazard method in section 2.33, or it could be stolen from a construction site, since it is usually used in blasting, because it is very stable and insensitive to shock and heat. A terrorist could also buy several Instant Cold-Paks from a drug store or medical supply store. The major disadvantage with ammonium nitrate, from a terrorist’s point of view, would be detonating it. A rather powerful priming charge must be used, and usually with a booster charge. The diagram below will explain.
_________________________________________ | | | ________| | | | | T.N.T.| ammonium nitrate | |primer |booster| | |_______| | | | | | |_______|_______________________________| The primer explodes, detonating the T.N.T., which detonates, sending a tremendous shockwave through the ammonium nitrate, detonating it.
ANFO is an acronym for Ammonium Nitrate – Fuel Oil Solution. An ANFO solves the only other major problem with ammonium nitrate: its tendency to pick up water vapor from the air. This results in the explosive failing to detonate when such an attempt is made. This is rectified by mixing 94% (by weight) ammonium nitrate with 6% fuel oil, or kerosene. The kerosene keeps the ammonium nitrate from absorbing moisture from the air. An ANFO also requires a large shockwave to set it off.
T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene, is perhaps the second oldest known high explosive. Dynamite, of course, was the first. It is certainly the best known high explosive, since it has been popularized by early morning cartoons. It is the standard for comparing other explosives to, since it is the most well known. In industry, a T.N.T. is made by a three step nitration process that is designed to conserve the nitric and sulfuric acids which are used to make the product. A terrorist, however, would probably opt for the less economical one step method. The one step process is performed by treating toluene with very strong (fuming) sulfuric acid. Then, the sulfated toluene is treated with very strong (fuming) nitric acid in an ice bath. Cold water is added the solution, and it is filtered.
3.35 POTASSIUM CHLORATE
Potassium chlorate itself cannot be made in the home, but it can be obtained from labs. If potassium chlorate is mixed with a small amount of vaseline, or other petroleum jelly, and a shockwave is passed through it, the material will detonate with slightly more power than black powder. It must, however, be confined to detonate it in this manner. The procedure for making such an explosive is outlined below:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT --------- --------- potassium chlorate zip-lock plastic bag (9 parts, by volume) petroleum jelly clay grinding bowl (vaseline) or (1 part, by volume) wooden bowl and wooden spoon
The name dynamite comes from the Greek word “dynamis”, meaning power. Dynamite was invented by Nobel shortly after he made nitroglycerine. It was made because nitroglycerine was so dangerously sensitive to shock. A misguided individual with some sanity would, after making nitroglycerine (an insane act) would immediately convert it to dynamite. This can be done by adding various materials to the nitroglycerine, such as sawdust. The sawdust holds a large weight of nitroglycerine per volume. Other materials, such as ammonium nitrate could be added, and they would tend to desensitize the explosive, and increase the power. But even these nitroglycerine compounds are not really safe.
3.37 NITROSTARCH EXPLOSIVES
Nitrostarch explosives are simple to make, and are fairly powerful. All that need be done is treat various starches with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids. 10 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid is added to 10 ml of concentrated nitric acid. To this mixture is added 0.5 grams of starch. Cold water is added, and the apparently unchanged nitrostarch is filtered out. Nitrostarch explosives are of slightly lower power than T.N.T., but they are more readily detonated.
3.38 PICRIC ACID
Picric acid, also known as Tri-Nitro-Phenol, or T.N.P., is a military explosive that is most often used as a booster charge to set off another less sensitive explosive, such as T.N.T. It another explosive that is fairly simple to make, assuming that one can acquire the concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Its procedure for manufacture is given in many college chemistry lab manuals, and is easy to follow. The main problem with picric acid is its tendency to form dangerously sensitive and unstable picrate salts, such as potassium picrate. For this reason, it is usually made into a safer form, such as ammonium picrate, also called explosive D. A social deviant would probably use a formula similar to the one presented here to make picric acid.
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT --------- --------- phenol (9.5 g) 500 ml flask concentrated adjustable heat source sulfuric acid (12.5 ml) 1000 ml beaker concentrated nitric or other container acid (38 ml) suitable for boiling in distilled water filter paper and funnel glass stirring rod
3.39 AMMONIUM PICRATE
Ammonium picrate, also called Explosive D, is another safety explosive. It requires a substantial shock to cause it to detonate, slightly less than that required to detonate ammonium nitrate. It is much safer than picric acid, since it has little tendency to form hazardous unstable salts when placed in metal containers. It is simple to make from picric acid and clear household ammonia. All that need be done is put the picric acid crystals into a glass container and dissolve them in a great quantity of hot water. Add clear household ammonia in excess, and allow the excess ammonia to evaporate. The powder remaining should be ammonium picrate.
3.40 NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE
Nitrogen trichloride, also known as chloride of azode, is an oily yellow liquid. It explodes violently when it is heated above 60 degrees celsius, or when it comes in contact with an open flame or spark. It is fairly simple to produce.
3.41 LEAD AZIDE
Lead Azide is a material that is often used as a booster charge for other explosive, but it does well enough on its own as a fairly sensitive explosive. It does not detonate too easily by percussion or impact, but it is easily detonated by heat from an igniter wire, or a blasting cap. It is simple to produce, assuming that the necessary chemicals can be procured.
By dissolving sodium azide and lead acetate in water in separate beakers, the two materials are put into an aqueous state. Mix the two beakers together, and apply a gentle heat. Add an excess of the lead acetate solution, until no reaction occurs, and the precipitate on the bottom of the beaker stops forming. Filter off the solution, and wash the precipitate in hot water. The precipitate is lead azide, and it must be stored wet for safety. If lead acetate cannot be found, simply acquire acetic acid, and put lead metal in it. Black powder bullets work well for this purpose.
3.5 OTHER “EXPLOSIVES”
The remaining section covers the other types of materials that can be used to destroy property by fire. Although none of the materials presented here are explosives, they still produce explosive-style results.
Thermit is a fuel-oxodizer mixture that is used to generate tremendous amounts of heat. It was not presented in section 3.23 because it does not react nearly as readily. It is a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum, both finely powdered. When it is ignited, the aluminum burns, and extracts the oxygen from the iron oxide. This is really two very exothermic reactions that produce a combined temperature of about 2200 degrees C. This is half the heat produced by an atomic weapon. It is difficult to ignite, however, but when it is ignited, it is one of the most effective firestarters around.
MATERIALS --------- powdered aluminum (10 g) powdered iron oxide (10 g)
3.52 MOLOTOV COCKTAILS
First used by Russians against German tanks, the Molotov cocktail is now exclusively used by terrorists worldwide. They are extremely simple to make, and can produce devastating results. By taking any highly flammable material, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, ethyl or methyl alcohol, lighter fluid, turpentine, or any mixture of the above, and putting it into a large glass bottle, anyone can make an effective firebomb. After putting the flammable liquid in the bottle, simply put a piece of cloth that is soaked in the liquid in the top of the bottle so that it fits tightly. Then, wrap some of the cloth around the neck and tie it, but be sure to leave a few inches of lose cloth to light. Light the exposed cloth, and throw the bottle. If the burning cloth does not go out, and if the bottle breaks on impact, the contents of the bottle will spatter over a large area near the site of impact, and burst into flame. Flammable mixtures such as kerosene and motor oil should be mixed with a more volatile and flammable liquid, such as gasoline, to insure ignition. A mixture such as tar or grease and gasoline will stick to the surface that it strikes, and burn hotter, and be more difficult to extinguish. A mixture such as this must be shaken well before it is lit and thrown
3.53 CHEMICAL FIRE BOTTLE
The chemical fire bottle is really an advanced molotov cocktail. Rather than using the burning cloth to ignite the flammable liquid, which has at best a fair chance of igniting the liquid, the chemical fire bottle utilizes the very hot and violent reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium chlorate. When the container breaks, the sulfuric acid in the mixture of gasoline sprays onto the paper soaked in potassium chlorate and sugar. The paper, when struck by the acid, instantly bursts into a white flame, igniting the gasoline. The chance of failure to ignite the gasoline is less than 2%, and can be reduced to 0%, if there is enough potassium chlorate and sugar to spare.
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT --------- --------- potassium chlorate glass bottle (2 teaspoons) (12 oz.) sugar (2 teaspoons) cap for bottle, with plastic inside concentrated cooking pan with raised sulfuric acid (4 oz.) edges gasoline (8 oz.) paper towels glass or plastic cup and spoon
3.54 BOTTLED GAS EXPLOSIVES
Bottled gas, such as butane for refilling lighters, propane for propane stoves or for bunsen burners, can be used to produce a powerful explosion. To make such a device, all that a simple-minded anarchist would have to do would be to take his container of bottled gas and place it above a can of Sterno or other gelatinized fuel, and light the fuel and run. Depending on the fuel used, and on the thickness of the fuel container, the liquid gas will boil and expand to the point of bursting the container in about five minutes. In theory, the gas would immediately be ignited by the burning gelatinized fuel, producing a large fireball and explosion. Unfortunately, the bursting of the bottled gas container often puts out the fuel, thus preventing the expanding gas from igniting. By using a metal bucket half filled with gasoline, however, the chances of ignition are better, since the gasoline is less likely to be extinguished. Placing the canister of bottled gas on a bed of burning charcoal soaked in gasoline would probably be the most effective way of securing ignition of the expanding gas, since although the bursting of the gas container may blow out the flame of the gasoline, the burning charcoal should immediately re-ignite it. Nitrous oxide, hydrogen, propane, acetylene, or any other flammable gas will do nicely.
4.0 USING EXPLOSIVES
Once a terrorist has made his explosives, the next logical step is to apply them. Explosives have a wide range of uses, from harassment, to vandalism, to murder. NONE OF THE IDEAS PRESENTED HERE ARE EVER TO BE CARRIED OUT, EITHER IN PART OR IN FULL! DOING SO CAN LEAD TO PROSECUTION, FINES, AND IMPRISONMENT!
The first step that a person that would use explosive would take would be to determine how big an explosive device would be needed to do whatever had to be done. Then, he would have to decide what to make his bomb with. He would also have to decide on how he wanted to detonate the device, and determine where the best placement for it would be. Then, it would be necessary to see if the device could be put where he wanted it without it being discovered or moved. Finally, he would actually have to sit down and build his explosive device. These are some of the topics covered in the next section.
There is no such thing as a “safe” explosive device. One can only speak in terms of relative safety, or less unsafe.
4.2 IGNITION DEVICES
There are many ways to ignite explosive devices. There is the classic “light the fuse, throw the bomb, and run” approach, and there are sensitive mercury switches, and many things in between. Generally, electrical detonation systems are safer than fuses, but there are times when fuses are more appropriate than electrical systems; it is difficult to carry an electrical detonation system into a stadium, for instance, without being caught. A device with a fuse or impact detonating fuse would be easier to hide.
4.21 FUSE IGNITION
The oldest form of explosive ignition, fuses are perhaps the favorite type of simple ignition system. By simply placing a piece of waterproof fuse in a device, one can have almost guaranteed ignition. Modern waterproof fuse is extremely reliable, burning at a rate of about 2.5 seconds to the inch. It is available as model rocketry fuse in most hobby shops, and costs about $3.00 for a nine-foot length. Fuse is a popular ignition system for pipe bombers because of its simplicity. All that need be done is light it with a match or lighter. Of course, if the Army had fuses like this, then the grenade, which uses fuse ignition, would be very impracticle. If a grenade ignition system can be acquired, by all means, it is the most effective. But, since such things do not just float around, the next best thing is to prepare a fuse system which does not require the use of a match or lighter, but still retains its simplicity. One such method is described below:
MATERIALS _________ strike-on-cover type matches electrical tape or duct tape waterproof fuse
Suppose an eight inch piece of fuse is burned, and its complete time of combustion is 20 seconds. 20 seconds ---------- = 2.5 seconds per inch. 8 inches If a delay of 10 seconds was desired with this fuse, divide the desired time by the number of seconds per inch: 10 seconds ------------------- = 4 inches 2.5 seconds / inch NOTE: THE LENGTH OF FUSE HERE MEANS LENGTH OF FUSE TO THE POWDER. SOME FUSE, AT LEAST AN INCH, SHOULD BE INSIDE THE DEVICE. ALWAYS ADD THIS EXTRA INCH, AND PUT THIS EXTRA INCH AN INCH INTO THE DEVICE!!!
_____________________ \ / \ / ------ match book cover \ / | M|f|M ---|------- match head | A|u|A | | T|s|T | | C|e|C | |tapeH|.|Htape| | |f| | |#####|u|#####|-------- striking paper |#####|s|#####| \ |e| / \ |.| / \ |f| / \ |u| / |ta|s|pe| |ta|e|pe| |.| |f| |u| |s| |e| |.| |_|
The match book is wrapped around the matches, and is taped to itself. The matches are taped to the fuse. The striker will rub against the matcheads when the match book is pulled.
4.22 IMPACT IGNITION
Impact ignition is an excellent method of ignition for spontaneous terrorist activities. The problem with an impact-detonating device is that it must be kept in a very safe container so that it will not explode while being transported to the place where it is to be used. This can be done by having a removable impact initiator.
The best and most reliable impact initiator is one that uses factory made initiators or primers. A no. 11 cap for black powder firearms is one such primer. They usually come in boxes of 100, and cost about $2.50. To use such a cap, however, one needs a nipple that it will fit on. Black powder nipples are also available in gun stores. All that a person has to do is ask for a package of nipples and the caps that fit them. Nipples have a hole that goes all the way through them, and they have a threaded end, and an end to put the cap on. A cutaway of a nipple is shown below:
________________ | | _ | | | | _______| |^^^^^^^^| | | ___________| | | | | no. 11 |_______| | percussion _______ | ------- threads for screwing cap here | | | nipple onto bomb | |___________ | |_______ | | | |^^^^^^^^^| | |_| | | |________________|
When making using this type of initiator, a hole must be drilled into whatever container is used to make the bomb out of. The nipple is then screwed into the hole so that it fits tightly. Then, the cap can be carried and placed on the bomb when it is to be thrown. The cap should be bent a small amount before it is placed on the nipple, to make sure that it stays in place. The only other problem involved with an impact detonating bomb is that it must strike a hard surface on the nipple to set it off. By attaching fins or a small parachute on the end of the bomb opposite the primer, the bomb, when thrown, should strike the ground on the primer, and explode. Of course, a bomb with mercury fulminate in each end will go off on impact regardless of which end it strikes on, but mercury fulminate is also likely to go off if the person carrying the bomb is bumped hard.
4.23 ELECTRICAL IGNITION
Electrical ignition systems for detonation are usually the safest and most reliable form of ignition. Electrical systems are ideal for demolition work, if one doesn’t have to worry so much about being caught. With two spools of 500 ft of wire and a car battery, one can detonate explosives from a “safe”, comfortable distance, and be sure that there is nobody around that could get hurt. With an electrical system, one can control exactly what time a device will explode, within fractions of a second. Detonation can be aborted in less than a second’s warning, if a person suddenly walks by the detonation sight, or if a police car chooses to roll by at the time. The two best electrical igniters are military squibs and model rocketry igniters. Blasting caps for construction also work well. Model rocketry igniters are sold in packages of six, and cost about $1.00 per pack. All that need be done to use them is connect it to two wires and run a current through them. Military squibs are difficult to get, but they are a little bit better, since they explode when a current is run through them, whereas rocketry igniters only burst into flame. Military squibs can be used to set off sensitive high explosives, such as R.D.X., or potassium chlorate mixed with petroleum jelly. Igniters can be used to set off black powder, mercury fulminate, or guncotton, which in turn, can set of a high order explosive.
4.24 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IGNITION
Electro-mechanical ignition systems are systems that use some type of mechanical switch to set off an explosive charge electrically. This type of switch is typically used in booby traps or other devices in which the person who places the bomb does not wish to be anywhere near the device when it explodes. Several types of electro-mechanical detonators will be discussed
4.241 Mercury Switches
Mercury switches are a switch that uses the fact that mercury metal conducts electricity, as do all metals, but mercury metal is a liquid at room temperatures. A typical mercury switch is a sealed glass tube with two electrodes and a bead of mercury metal. It is sealed because of mercury’s nasty habit of giving off brain-damaging vapors. The diagram below may help to explain a mercury switch.
______________ A / \ B _____wire +______/___________ \ \ ( Hg ) | / \ _(_Hg_)__|___/ | | wire - | | |
When the drop of mercury (“Hg” is mercury’s atomic symbol) touches both contacts, current flows through the switch. If this particular switch was in its present position, A—B, current would be flowing, since the mercury can touch both contacts in the horizontal position.
If, however, it was in the | position, the drop of mercury would only touch the + contact on the A side. Current, then couldn’t flow, since mercury does not reach both contacts when the switch is in the vertical position.
This type of switch is ideal to place by a door. If it were placed in the path of a swinging door in the verticle position, the motion of the door would knock the switch down, if it was held to the ground by a piece if tape. This would tilt the switch into the verticle position, causing the mercury to touch both contacts, allowing current to flow through the mercury, and to the igniter or squib in an explosive device. Imagine opening a door and having it slammed in your face by an explosion.
4.242 Tripwire Switches
A tripwire is an element of the classic booby trap. By placing a nearly invisible line of string or fishing line in the probable path of a victim, and by putting some type of trap there also, nasty things can be caused to occur. If this mode of thought is applied to explosives, how would one use such a tripwire to detonate a bomb. The technique is simple. By wrapping the tips of a standard clothespin with aluminum foil, and placing something between them, and connecting wires to each aluminum foil contact, an electric tripwire can be made, If a piece of wood attached to the tripwire was placed between the contacts on the clothespin, the clothespin would serve as a switch. When the tripwire was pulled, the clothespin would snap together, allowing current to flow between the two pieces of aluminum foil, thereby completing a circuit, which would have the igniter or squib in it. Current would flow between the contacts to the igniter or squib, heat the igniter or squib, causing it it to explode.
__________________________________ \_foil___________________________/ Insert strip of ----------------------------spring wood with trip- _foil__________________________ wire between foil /_______________________________\ contacts.
Make sure that the aluminum foil contacts do not touch the spring, since the spring also conducts electricity.
4.243 Radio Control Detonators
In the movies, every terrorist or criminal uses a radio controlled detonator to set off explosives. With a good radio detonator, one can be several miles away from the device, and still control exactly when it explodes, in much the same way as an electrical switch. The problem with radio detonators is that they are rather costly. However, there could possibly be a reason that a terrorist would wish to spend the amounts of money involved with a RC (radio control) system and use it as a detonator. If such an individual wanted to devise an RC detonator, all he would need to do is visit the local hobby store or toy store, and buy a radio controlled toy. Taking it back to his/her abode, all that he/she would have to do is detach the solenoid/motor that controls the motion of the front wheels of a RC car, or detach the solenoid/motor of the elevators/rudder of a RC plane, or the rudder of a RC boat, and re-connect the squib or rocket engine igniter to the contacts for the solenoid/motor. The device should be tested several times with squibs or igniters, and fully charged batteries should be in both he controller and the receiver (the part that used to move parts before the device became a detonator).
A delay is a device which causes time to pass from when a device is set up to the time that it explodes. A regular fuse is a delay, but it would cost quite a bit to have a 24 hour delay with a fuse. This section deals with the different types of delays that can be employed by a terrorist who wishes to be sure that his bomb will go off, but wants to be out of the country when it does.
4.31 FUSE DELAYS
It is extremely simple to delay explosive devices that employ fuses for ignition. Perhaps the simplest way to do so is with a cigarette. An average cigarette burns for about 8 minutes. The higher the “tar” and nicotine rating, the slower the cigarette burns. Low “tar” and nicotine cigarettes burn quicker than the higher “tar” and nicotine cigarettes, but they are also less likely to go out if left unattended, i.e. not smoked. Depending on the wind or draft in a given place, a high “tar” cigarette is better for delaying the ignition of a fuse, but there must be enough wind or draft to give the cigarette enough oxygen to burn. People who use cigarettes for the purpose of delaying fuses will often test the cigarettes that they plan to use in advance to make sure they stay lit and to see how long it will burn. Once a cigarettes burn rate is determined, it is a simple matter of carefully putting a hole all the way through a cigarette with a toothpick at the point desired, and pushing the fuse for a device in the hole formed.
|=| |=| ---------- filter |=| | | | | |o| ---------- hole for fuse cigarette ------------ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |_| ---------- light this end
A similar type of device can be make from powdered charcoal and a sheet of paper. Simply roll the sheet of paper into a thin tube, and fill it with powdered charcoal. Punch a hole in it at the desired location, and insert a fuse. Both ends must be glued closed, and one end of the delay must be doused with lighter fluid before it is lit. Or, a small charge of gunpowder mixed with powdered charcoal could conceivably used for igniting such a delay. A chain of charcoal briquettes can be used as a delay by merely lining up a few bricks of charcoal so that they touch each other, end on end, and lighting the first brick. Incense, which can be purchased at almost any novelty or party supply store, can also be used as a fairly reliable delay. By wrapping the fuse about the end of an incense stick, delays of up to 1/2 an hour are possible.
Finally, it is possible to make a relatively slow-burning fuse in the home. By dissolving about one teaspoon of black powder in about 1/4 a cup of boiling water, and, while it is still hot, soaking in it a long piece of all cotton string, a slow-burning fuse can be made. After the soaked string dries, it must then be tied to the fuse of an explosive device. Sometimes, the end of the slow burning fuse that meets the normal fuse has a charge of black powder or gunpowder at the intersection point to insure ignition, since the slow-burning fuse does not burn at a very high temperature. A similar type of slow fuse can be made by taking the above mixture of boiling water and black powder and pouring it on a long piece of toilet paper. The wet toilet paper is then gently twisted up so that it resembles a firecracker fuse, and is allowed to dry.
4.32 TIMER DELAYS
Timer delays, or “time bombs” are usually employed by an individual who wishes to threaten a place with a bomb and demand money to reveal its location and means to disarm it. Such a device could be placed in any populated place if it were concealed properly. There are several ways to build a timer delay. By simply using a screw as one contact at the time that detonation is desired, and using the hour hand of a clock as the other contact, a simple timer can be made. The minute hand of a clock should be removed, unless a delay of less than an hour is desired.
___________________________________ to igniter from igniter | | | 12 | : : | 11 1 | : : | | : : | 10 2 | : : | o................|......: : | | : | 9 3 | : | | : | | : | 8 4 | : | o.........|...... : | 7 5 | : : | 6 | :.+.....-.....: |__________________________________| __|_____| | | | battery | o - contacts | | ..... - wire | | |___________|
This device is set to go off in eleven hours. When the hour hand of the clock reaches the contact near the numeral 5, it will complete the circuit, allowing current to flow through the igniter or squib.
The main disadvantage with this type of timer is that it can only be set for a maximum time of 12 hours. If an electronic timer is used, such as that in an electronic clock, then delays of up to 24 hours are possible. By removing the speaker from an electronic clock, and attaching the wires of a squib or igniter to them, a timer with a delay of up to 24 hours can be made. To utilize this type of timer, one must have a socket that the clock can be plugged into. All that one has to do is set the alarm time of the clock to the desired time, connect the leads, and go away. This could also be done with an electronic watch, if a larger battery were used, and the current to the speaker of the watch was stepped up via a transformer. This would be good, since such a timer could be extremely small. The timer in a VCR (Video Cassette Recorder) would be ideal. VCR’s can usually be set for times of up to a week. The leads from the timer to the recording equipment would be the ones that an igniter or squib would be connected to. Also, one can buy timers from electronics stores that would be ideal. Finally, one could employ a digital watch, and use a relay, or electro-magnetic switch to fire the igniter, and the current of the watch would not have to be stepped up.
4.33 CHEMICAL DELAYS
Chemical delays are uncommon, but they can be extremely effective in some cases. If a glass container is filled with concentrated sulfuric acid, and capped with several thicknesses of aluminum foil, or a cap that it will eat through, then it can be used as a delay. Sulfuric acid will react with aluminum foil to produce aluminum sulfate and hydrogen gas, and so the container must be open to the air on one end so that the pressure of the hydrogen gas that is forming does not break the container. See diagram on following page.
_ _ | | | | | | | | | | | | | |_____________| | | | | | | | sulfuric | | | | | | | | acid | | | | | |---------- aluminum foil | |_____________| | (several thicknesses) |_________________|
The aluminum foil is placed over the bottom of the container and secured there with tape. When the acid eats through the aluminum foil, it can be used to ignite an explosive device in several ways.
4.4 EXPLOSIVE CONTAINERS
This section will cover everything from making a simple firecracker to a complicated scheme for detonating an insensitive high explosive, both of which are methods that could be utilized by perpetrators of terror.
4.41 PAPER CONTAINERS
Paper was the first container ever used for explosives, since it was first used by the Chinese to make fireworks. Paper containers are usually very simple to make, and are certainly the cheapest. There are many possible uses for paper in containing explosives, and the two most obvious are in firecrackers and rocket engines. Simply by rolling up a long sheet of paper, and gluing it together, one can make a simple rocket engine. Perhaps a more interesting and dangerous use is in the firecracker. The firecracker shown here is one of Mexican design. It is called a “polumna”, meaning “dove”. The process of their manufacture is not unlike that of making a paper football. If one takes a sheet of paper about 16 inches in length by 1.5 inches wide, and fold one corner so that it looks like this:
________________________________________________________ | |\ | | \ | | \ |______________________________________________________|___\ and then fold it again so that it looks like this: _______________________________________________________ | /| | / | | / | |__________________________________________________/___|
A pocket is formed. This pocket can be filled with black powder, pyrodex, flash powder, gunpowder,rocket engine powder, or any of the quick-burning fuel- oxodizer mixtures that occur in the form of a fine powder. A fuse is then inserted, and one continues the triangular folds, being careful not to spill out any of the explosive. When the polumna is finished, it should be taped together very tightly, since this will increase the strength of the container, and produce a louder and more powerful explosion when it is lit. The finished polumna should look like a 1/4 inch – 1/3 inch thick triangle, like the one shown below:
^ / \ ----- securely tape all corners / \ / \ / \ / \ / \____________________________ /_____________\__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/ ---------- fuse
4.42 METAL CONTAINERS
The classic pipe bomb is the best known example of a metal-contained explosive. Idiot anarchists take white tipped matches and cut off the match heads. They pound one end of a pipe closed with a hammer, pour in the white- tipped matches, and then pound the other end closed. This process often kills the fool, since when he pounds the pipe closed, he could very easily cause enough friction between the match heads to cause them to ignite and explode the unfinished bomb. By using pipe caps, the process is somewhat safer, and the less stupid anarchist would never use white tipped matches in a bomb. He would buy two pipe caps and threaded pipe (fig. 1). First, he would drill a hole in one pipe cap, and put a fuse in it so that it will not come out, and so powder will not escape during handling. The fuse would be at least 3/4 an inch long inside the bomb. He would then screw the cap with the fuse in it on tightly, possibly putting a drop of super glue on it to hold it tight. He would then pour his explosive powder in the bomb. To pack it tightly, he would take a large wad of tissue paper and, after filling the pipe to the very top, pack the powder down, by using the paper as a ramrod tip, and pushing it with a pencil or other wide ended object, until it would not move any further. Finally, he would screw the other pipe cap on, and glue it. The tissue paper would help prevent some of the powder from being caught in the threads of the pipe or pipe cap from being crushed and subject to friction, which might ignite the powder, causing an explosion during manufacture. An assembled bomb is shown in fig. 2.
_________ _______________ __________ | | ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ | | | |vvvvv| |_________________________| |vvvvvv| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ___________________________ | | | | | | | | | |^^^^^| vvvvvv_______________vvvvvv |^^^^^^| | |_______| |________| fig 1. Threaded pipe and endcaps. ________ ________ | _____|________________________________|_____ | | |__________________________________________| | | |: : : : |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -| | | | tissue | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |_| | | : : : |- - - low order explosive - - ---------------------- | | paper | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |-| fuse | |: : : : |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -| | | |________|_________________________________| | | |__________________________________________| | |______| |______| endcap pipe endcap w/ hole fig. 2 Assembled pipe bomb.
This is one possible design that a mad bomber would use. If, however, he did not have access to threaded pipe with endcaps, he could always use a piece of copper or aluminum pipe, since it is easily bent into a suitable position. A major problem with copper piping, however, is bending and folding it without tearing it; if too much force is used when folding and bending copper pipe, it will split along the fold. The safest method for making a pipe bomb out of copper or aluminum pipe is similar to the method with pipe and endcaps. First, one flattens one end of a copper or aluminum pipe carefully, making sure not to tear or rip the piping. Then, the flat end of the pipe should be folded over at least once, if this does not rip the pipe. A fuse hole should be drilled in the pipe near the now closed end, and the fuse should be inserted. Next, the bomb-builder would fill the bomb with a low order explosive, and pack it with a large wad of tissue paper. He would then flatten and fold the other end of the pipe with a pair of pliers. If he was not too dumb, he would do this slowly, since the process of folding and bending metal gives off heat, which could set off the explosive. A diagram is presented below:
________ _______________________________________________/ | | | | o | |______________________________________________ | \_______| fig. 1 pipe with one end flattened and fuse hole drilled (top view) ______ ____________________________________________/ | | | | | | o | | |___________________________________________ | | \__|__| fig. 2 pipe with one end flattened and folded up (top view) ____________ fuse hole | v _________________________________________________ | \ |____ | | \____| | | ______| | / |_____________________________/__________________ fig. 3 pipe with flattened and folded end (side view) _________________ fuse / | ________ ______________________________|___ _______ | ____| / |- - - - - - - - - - -| - - \ |___ | | |_____/tissue| - - - - - - - - - - - -|- - \_____| | |________ paper |- - - low order explosive - _______| \ | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - / \_____________________________________/ fig. 4 completed bomb, showing tissue paper packing and explosive (side view)
A CO2 cartridge from a B.B gun is another excellent container for a low-order explosive. It has one minor disadvantage: it is time consuming to fill. But this can be rectified by widening the opening of the cartridge with a pointed tool. Then, all that would have to be done is to fill the CO2 cartridge with any low-order explosive, or any of the fast burning fuel- oxodizer mixtures, and insert a fuse. These devices are commonly called “crater makers”.
A CO2 cartridge also works well as a container for a thermit incendiary device, but it must be modified. The opening in the end must be widened, so that the ignition mixture, such as powdered magnesium, does not explode. The fuse will ignite the powdered magnesium, which, in turn, would ignite the thermit.
The previously mentioned designs for explosive devices are fine for low-order explosives, but are unsuitable for high-order explosives, since the latter requires a shockwave to be detonated. A design employing a smaller low-order explosive device inside a larger device containing a high-order explosive would probably be used. It would look something like:
_______________________ fuse | | | _________ | _________ | ____|__________________________|___________|____ | | | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * * | | | | * * * * * * high explosive | * * * * * * * | | | | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * * | | | | * ______ _______________|_ ______ * | | | | * * | __| / - - - - - - | \ |__ | * | | | | * | |____/ low explosive - \____| | * | | | | * * |_______ - - - - - - - - - _______| * | | | | * * * * * \ - - - - - - - - / * * * * * | | | | * * * * * * \_________________/ * * * * * | | | | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * | | | | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * | | | | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * | | | |______________________________________________| | |_______| |_______|
If the large high explosive container is small, such as a CO2 cartridge, then a segment of a hollow radio antenna can be made into a low-order pipe bomb, which can be fitted with a fuse, and inserted into the CO2 cartridge.
4.43 GLASS CONTAINERS
Glass containers can be suitable for low-order explosives, but there are problems with them. First, a glass container can be broken relatively easily compared to metal or plastic containers. Secondly, in the not-too-unlikely event of an “accident”, the person making the device would probably be seriously injured, even if the device was small. A bomb made out of a sample perfume bottle-sized container exploded in the hands of one boy, and he still has pieces of glass in his hand. He is also missing the final segment of his ring finger, which was cut off by a sharp piece of flying glass…
Nonetheless, glass containers such as perfume bottles can be used by a demented individual, since such a device would not be detected by metal detectors in an airport or other public place. All that need be done is fill the container, and drill a hole in the plastic cap that the fuse fits tightly in, and screw the cap-fuse assembly on.
________________________ fuse | | | _____|_____ | ___|___ | | > | < | drill hole in cap, and insert fuse; | > | < | be sure fuse will not come out of cap | > | < | | | | | | | | | | screw cap on bottle | | | | V V _________ < > < > < > / \ / \ / \ | | fill bottle with low-order explosive | | | | | | | | |___________|
Large explosive devices made from glass containers are not practicle, since glass is not an exceptionally strong container. Much of the explosive that is used to fill the container is wasted if the container is much larger than a 16 oz. soda bottle. Also, glass containers are usually unsuitable for high explosive devices, since a glass container would probably not withstand the explosion of the initiator; it would shatter before the high explosive was able to detonate.
4.44 PLASTIC CONTAINERS
Plastic containers are perhaps the best containers for explosives, since they can be any size or shape, and are not fragile like glass. Plastic piping can be bought at hardware or plumbing stores, and a device much like the ones used for metal containers can be made. The high-order version works well with plastic piping. If the entire device is made out of plastic, it is not detectable by metal detectors. Plastic containers can usually be shaped by heating the container, and bending it at the appropriate place. They can be glued closed with epoxy or other cement for plastics. Epoxy alone can be used as an endcap, if a wad of tissue paper is placed in the piping. Epoxy with a drying agent works best in this type of device.
|| || || || ||\_____________/|| || || || epoxy || ||_______________|| || || || tissue || || paper || ||_______________|| ||***************|| ||***************|| ||***************|| ||***************|| ||** explosive **|| ||***************|| ||***********----------------------- fuse ||***************|| ||---------------|| || || || tissue || || paper || ||_______________|| || || || epoxy || || _____________ || ||/ \|| || || || ||
One end must be made first, and be allowed to dry completely before the device can be filled with powder and fused. Then, with another piece of tissue paper, pack the powder tightly, and cover it with plenty of epoxy. PVC pipe works well for this type of device, but it cannot be used if the pipe had an inside diameter greater than 3/4 of an inch. Other plastic puttys can be used int this type of device, but epoxy with a drying agent works best.
4.5 ADVANCED USES FOR EXPLOSIVES
The techniques presented here are those that could be used by a person who had some degree of knowledge of the use of explosives. Some of this information comes from demolitions books, or from military handbooks. Advanced uses for explosives usually involved shaped charges, or utilize a minimum amount of explosive to do a maximum amount of damage. They almost always involve high- order explosives.
4.51 SHAPED CHARGES
A shaped charge is an explosive device that, upon detonation, directs the explosive force of detonation at a small target area. This process can be used to breach the strongest armor, since forces of literally millions of pounds of pressure per square inch can be generated. Shaped charges employ high-order explosives, and usually electric ignition systems. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL EXPLOSIVES ARE DANGEROUS, AND SHOULD NEVER BE MADE OR USED!!
An example of a shaped charge is shown below. + wire ________ _______ - wire | | | | | | _ _________|_________|____________ ^ | ________|_________|__________ | | | | | | | | | | | \ igniter / | | | | | \_______/ | | | | | priming charge | | | | | (mercury fulminate) | | | | | ^ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | / \ | | 8 inches high | | / \ | | | | / high \ | | | | | / explosive \ | | | | | / charge \ | | | | | / \ | | | | |/ \| | | | | ^ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | | | | / \ | | ------- 1/2 inch | | | / \ | | thick steel | | | / \ | | pipe | | | / \ | | | | |/ \| | | hole for | | | | hole for | screw | | | | screw | | | | | V_______ ___________| | | |___________ ________ |______| |____________| |_____________| |______| |<------- 8 inches -------->|
If a device such as this is screwed to a safe, for example, it would direct most of the explosive force at a point about 1 inch away from the opening of the pipe. The basis for shaped charges is a cone-shaped opening in the explosive material. This cone should have an angle of 45 degrees. A device such as this one could also be attached to a metal surface with a powerful electromagnet.
4.52 TUBE EXPLOSIVES
A variation on shaped charges, tube explosives can be used in ways that shaped charges cannot. If a piece of 1/2 inch plastic tubing was filled with a sensitive high explosive like R.D.X., and prepared as the plastic explosive container in section 4.44, a different sort of shaped charge could be produced; a charge that directs explosive force in a circular manner. This type of explosive could be wrapped around a column, or a doorknob, or a telephone pole. The explosion would be directed in and out, and most likely destroy whatever it was wrapped around. In an unbent state, a tube explosive would look like this:
|| || || || ||\____/|| || epoxy|| ||______|| || || ||tissue|| || paper|| ||______|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| || RDX || ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| ||******|| || ____ || || | s| || || | q| || || | u| || || | i| || || | b| || || | b| || || |__| || ||__||__|| ||tissue|| || paper|| ||__||__|| || || || || epoxy|| || || || || _||_ || ||/ || \|| || || || || || || ||_______ + wire ______________ | |________ - wire ______________
When an assassin or terrorist wishes to use a tube bomb, he must wrap it around whatever thing he wishes to destroy, and epoxy the ends of the tube bomb together. After it dries, he/she can connect wires to the squib wires, and detonate the bomb, with any method of electric detonation.
4.53 ATOMIZED PARTICLE EXPLOSIONS
If a highly flammable substance is atomized, or, divided into very small particles, and large amounts of it is burned in a confined area, an explosion similar to that occurring in the cylinder of an automobile is produced. The tiny droplets of gasoline burn in the air, and the hot gasses expand rapidly, pushing the cylinder up. Similarly, if a gallon of gasoline was atomized and ignited in a building, it is very possible that the expanding gassed would push the walls of the building down. This phenomenon is called an atomized particle explosion. If a person can effectively atomize a large amount of a highly flammable substance and ignite it, he could bring down a large building, bridge, or other structure. Atomizing a large amount of gasoline, for example, can be extremely difficult, unless one has the aid of a high explosive. If a gallon jug of gasoline was placed directly over a high explosive charge, and the charge was detonated, the gasoline would instantly be atomized and ignited. If this occurred in a building, for example, an atomized particle explosion would surely occur. Only a small amount of high explosive would be necessary to accomplish this feat, about 1/2 a pound of T.N.T. or 1/4 a pound of R.D.X. Also, instead of gasoline, powdered aluminum could be used. It is necessary that a high explosive be used to atomize a flammable material, since a low-order explosion does not occur quickly enough to atomize or ignite the flammable material.
4.54 LIGHTBULB BOMBS
An automatic reaction to walking into a dark room is to turn on the light. This can be fatal, if a lightbulb bomb has been placed in the overhead light socket. A lightbulb bomb is surprisingly easy to make. It also comes with its own initiator and electric ignition system. On some lightbulbs, the lightbulb glass can be removed from the metal base by heating the base of a lightbulb in a gas flame, such as that of a blowtorch or gas stove. This must be done carefully, since the inside of a lightbulb is a vacuum. When the glue gets hot enough, the glass bulb can be pulled off the metal base. On other bulbs, it is necessary to heat the glass directly with a blowtorch or oxy-acetylene torch. When the bulb is red hot, a hole must be carefully poked in the bulb, remembering the vacuum state inside the bulb. In either case, once the bulb and/or base has cooled down to room temperature or lower, the bulb can be filled with an explosive material, such as black powder. If the glass was removed from the metal base, it must be glued back on to the base with epoxy. If a hole was put in the bulb, a piece of duct tape is sufficient to hold the explosive in the in the bulb. Then, after making sure that the socket has no power by checking with a working lightbulb, all that need be done is to screw the lightbulb bomb into the socket. Such a device has been used by terrorists or assassins with much success, since nobody can search the room for a bomb without first turning on the light.
4.55 BOOK BOMBS
Concealing a bomb can be extremely difficult in a day and age where perpetrators of violence run wild. Bags and briefcases are often searched by authorities whenever one enters a place where an individual might intend to set off a bomb. One approach to disguising a bomb is to build what is called a book bomb; an explosive device that is entirely contained inside of a book. Usually, a relatively large book is required, and the book must be of the hardback variety to hide any protrusions of a bomb. Dictionaries, law books, large textbooks, and other such books work well. When an individual makes a bookbomb, he/she must choose a type of book that is appropriate for the place where the book bomb will be placed. The actual construction of a book bomb can be done by anyone who possesses an electric drill and a coping saw. First, all of the pages of the book must be glued together. By pouring an entire container of water-soluble glue into a large bucket, and filling the bucket with boiling water, a glue-water solution can be made that will hold all of the book’s pages together tightly. After the glue-water solution has cooled to a bearable temperature, and the solution has been stirred well, the pages of the book must be immersed in the glue-water solution, and each page must be thoroughly soaked. It is extremely important that the covers of the book do not get stuck to the pages of the book while the pages are drying. Suspending the book by both covers and clamping the pages together in a vice works best. When the pages dry, after about three days to a week, a hole must be drilled into the now rigid pages, and they should drill out much like wood. Then, by inserting the coping saw blade through the pages and sawing out a rectangle from the middle of the book, the individual will be left with a shell of the book’s pages. The pages, when drilled out, should look like this:
________________________ | ____________________ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |__________________| | |______________________| (book covers omitted)
This rectangle must be securely glued to the back cover of the book. After building his/her bomb, which usually is of the timer or radio controlled variety, the bomber places it inside the book. The bomb itself, and whatever timer or detonator is used, should be packed in foam to prevent it from rolling or shifting about. Finally, after the timer is set, or the radio control has been turned on, the front cover is glued closed, and the bomb is taken to its destination.
4.56 PHONE BOMBS
The phone bomb is an explosive device that has been used in the past to kill or injure a specific individual. The basic idea is simple: when the person answers the phone, the bomb explodes. If a small but powerful high explosive device with a squib was placed in the phone receiver, when the current flowed through the receiver, the squib would explode, detonating the high explosive in the person’s hand. Nasty. All that has to be done is acquire a squib, and tape the receiver switch down. Unscrew the mouthpiece cover, and remove the speaker, and connect the squib’s leads where it was. Place a high explosive putty, such as C-1 (see section 3.31) in the receiver, and screw the cover on, making sure that the squib is surrounded by the C-1. Hang the phone up, and leave the tape in place. When the individual to whom the phone belongs attempts to answer the phone, he will notice the tape, and remove it. This will allow current to flow through the squib. Note that the device will not explode by merely making a phone call; the owner of the phone must lift up the receiver, and remove the tape. It is highly probable that the phone will be by his/her ear when the device explodes…
5.0 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PROJECTILE WEAPONS
Explosive and/or poisoned ammunition is an important part of a social deviant’s arsenal. Such ammunition gives the user a distinct advantage over individual who use normal ammunition, since a grazing hit is good enough to kill. Special ammunition can be made for many types of weapons, from crossbows to shotguns.
5.1 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PRIMITIVE WEAPONS
For the purposes of this publication, we will call any weapon primitive that does not employ burning gunpowder to propel a projectile forward. This means blowguns, bows and crossbows, and wristrockets.
5.11 BOW AND CROSSBOW AMMUNITION
Bows and crossbows both fire arrows or bolts as ammunition. It is extremely simple to poison an arrow or bolt, but it is a more difficult matter to produce explosive arrows or bolts. If, however, one can acquire aluminum piping that is the same diameter of an arrow or crossbow bolt, the entire segment of piping can be converted into an explosive device that detonates upon impact, or with a fuse. All that need be done is find an aluminum tube of the right length and diameter, and plug the back end with tissue paper and epoxy. Fill the tube with any type of low-order explosive or sensitive high- order explosive up to about 1/2 an inch from the top. Cut a slot in the piece of tubing, and carefully squeeze the top of the tube into a round point, making sure to leave a small hole. Place a no. 11 percussion cap over the hole, and secure it with super glue. Finally, wrap the end of the device with electrical or duct tape, and make fins out of tape. Or, fins can be bought at a sporting goods store, and glued to the shaft. The finished product should look like:
_____ | | ---------- no. 11 percussion cap ||*|| |*| |*| |*| |*| |*| |*| ----------- aluminum piping |*| |e| |x| |p| |l| |o| |s| |i| |v| |e| |*| |*| |*| |*| |*| |*| |*| /|_|\ / |t| \ | |p| | | |_| | | |e| | -------- fins | |p| | | |y| | |_|_|_| |_| tp: tissue paper epy: epoxy When the arrow or bolt strikes a hard surface, the percussion cap explodes, igniting or detonating the explosive.
5.12 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR BLOWGUNS
The blowgun is an interesting weapon which has several advantages. A blowgun can be extremely accurate, concealable, and deliver an explosive or poisoned projectile. The manufacture of an explosive dart or projectile is not difficult. Perhaps the most simple design for such involves the use of a pill capsule, such as the kind that are taken for headaches or allergies. Such a capsule could easily be opened, and the medicine removed. Next, the capsule would be re-filled with an impact-sensitive explosive. An additional high explosive charge could be placed behind the impact-sensitive explosive, if one of the larger capsules were used. Finally, the explosive capsule would be reglued back together, and a tassel or cotton would be glued to the end containing the high explosive, to insure that the impact-detonating explosive struck the target first. Such a device would probably be about 3/4 of an inch long, not including the tassel or cotton, and look something like this:
____________________ /mercury | \----------------------- (fulminate| R.D.X. )---------------------- } tassels \________|___________/-----------------------
5.13 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR WRISTROCKETS AND SLINGSHOTS
A modern wristrocket is a formidable weapon. It can throw a shooter marble about 500 ft. with reasonable accuracy. Inside of 200 ft., it could well be lethal to a man or animal, if it struck in a vital area. Because of the relatively large sized projectile that can be used in a wristrocket, the wristrocket can be adapted to throw relatively powerful explosive projectiles. A small segment of aluminum pipe could be made into an impact-detonating device by filling it with an impact-sensitive explosive material. Also, such a pipe could be filled with a low-order explosive, and fitted with a fuse, which would be lit before the device was shot. One would have to make sure that the fuse was of sufficient length to insure that the device did not explode before it reached its intended target. Finally, .22 caliber caps, such as the kind that are used in .22 caliber blank guns, make excellent exploding ammunition for wristrockets, but they must be used at a relatively close range, because of their light weight.
5.2 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR FIREARMS
When special ammunition is used in combination with the power and rapidity of modern firearms, it becomes very easy to take on a small army with a single weapon. It is possible to buy explosive ammunition, but that can be difficult to do. Such ammunition can also be manufactured in the home. There is, however, a risk involved with modifying any ammunition. If the ammunition is modified incorrectly, in such a way that it makes the bullet even the slightest bit wider, an explosion in the barrel of the weapon will occur. For this reason, NOBODY SHOULD EVER ATTEMPT TO MANUFACTURE SUCH AMMUNITION.
5.21 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR HANDGUNS
If an individual wished to produce explosive ammunition for his/her handgun, he/she could do it, provided that the person had an impact-sensitive explosive and a few simple tools. One would first purchase all lead bullets, and then make or acquire an impact-detonating explosive. By drilling a hole in a lead bullet with a drill, a space could be created for the placement of an explosive. After filling the hole with an explosive, it would be sealed in the bullet with a drop of hot wax from a candle. A diagram of a completed exploding bullet is shown below.
_o_ ------------ drop of wax /|*|\ | |*|-|----------- impact-sensitive explosive | |_| | |_____| This hollow space design also works for putting poison in bullets.
5.22 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR SHOTGUNS
Because of their large bore and high power, it is possible to create some extremely powerful special ammunition for use in shotguns. If a shotgun shell is opened at the top, and the shot removed, the shell can be re-closed. Then, if one can find a very smooth, lightweight wooden dowel that is close to the bore width of the shotgun, a person can make several types of shotgun- launched weapons. Insert the dowel in the barrel of the shotgun with the shell without the shot in the firing chamber. Mark the dowel about six inches away from the end of the barrel, and remove it from the barrel. Next, decide what type of explosive or incendiary device is to be used. This device can be a chemical fire bottle (sect. 3.43), a pipe bomb (sect 4.42), or a thermit bomb (sect 3.41 and 4.42). After the device is made, it must be securely attached to the dowel. When this is done, place the dowel back in the shotgun. The bomb or incendiary device should be on the end of the dowel. Make sure that the device has a long enough fuse, light the fuse, and fire the shotgun. If the projectile is not too heavy, ranges of up to 300 ft are possible. A diagram of a shotgun projectile is shown below:
____ || | || | || | ----- bomb, securely taped to dowel || | ||__| || | || | ------- fuse || | || || || || --------- dowel || || || || || || --------- insert this end into shotgun
5.3 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR COMPRESSED AIR/GAS WEAPONS
This section deals with the manufacture of special ammunition for compressed air or compressed gas weapons, such as pump B.B guns, CO2 B.B guns, and .22 cal pellet guns. These weapons, although usually thought of as kids toys, can be made into rather dangerous weapons.
5.31 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR B.B GUNS
A B.B gun, for this manuscript, will be considered any type of rifle or pistol that uses compressed air or CO2 gas to fire a projectile with a caliber of .177, either B.B, or lead pellet. Such guns can have almost as high a muzzle velocity as a bullet-firing rifle. Because of the speed at which a .177 caliber projectile flies, an impact detonating projectile can easily be made that has a caliber of .177. Most ammunition for guns of greater than .22 caliber use primers to ignite the powder in the bullet. These primers can be bought at gun stores, since many people like to reload their own bullets. Such primers detonate when struck by the firing pin of a gun. They will also detonate if they are thrown at a hard surface at a great speed. Usually, they will also fit in the barrel of a .177 caliber gun. If they are inserted flat end first, they will detonate when the gun is fired at a hard surface. If such a primer is attached to a piece of thin metal tubing, such as that used in an antenna, the tube can be filled with an explosive, be sealed, and fired from a B.B gun. A diagram of such a projectile appears below:
_____ primers _______ | | | | | | V V ______ ______ | ________________________ |------------------- | ****** explosive ******* |------------------- } tassel or | ________________________ |------------------- cotton |_____ _____|------------------- ^ | | |_______ antenna tubing
The front primer is attached to the tubing with a drop of super glue. The tubing is then filled with an explosive, and the rear primer is glued on. Finally, a tassel, or a small piece of cotton is glued to the rear primer, to insure that the projectile strikes on the front primer. The entire projectile should be about 3/4 of an inch long.
5.32 SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR .22 CALIBER PELLET GUNS
A .22 caliber pellet gun usually is equivalent to a .22 cal rifle, at close ranges. Because of this, relatively large explosive projectiles can be adapted for use with .22 caliber air rifles. A design similar to that used in section 5.12 is suitable, since some capsules are about .22 caliber or smaller. Or, a design similar to that in section 5.31 could be used, only one would have to purchase black powder percussion caps, instead of ammunition primers, since there are percussion caps that are about .22 caliber. A #11 cap is too small, but anything larger will do nicely.
6.0 ROCKETS AND CANNONS
Rockets and cannon are generally thought of as heavy artillery. Perpetrators of violence do not usually employ such devices, because they are difficult or impossible to acquire. They are not, however, impossible to make. Any individual who can make or buy black powder or pyrodex can make such things. A terrorist with a cannon or large rocket is, indeed, something to fear.
Rockets were first developed by the Chinese several hundred years before Christ. They were used for entertainment, in the form of fireworks. They were not usually used for military purposes because they were inaccurate, expensive, and unpredictable. In modern times, however, rockets are used constantly by the military, since they are cheap, reliable, and have no recoil. Perpetrators of violence, fortunately, cannot obtain military rockets, but they can make or buy rocket engines. Model rocketry is a popular hobby of the space age, and to launch a rocket, an engine is required. Estes, a subsidiary of Damon, is the leading manufacturer of model rockets and rocket engines. Their most powerful engine, the “D” engine, can develop almost 12 lbs. of thrust; enough to send a relatively large explosive charge a significant distance. Other companies, such as Centuri, produce even larger rocket engines, which develop up to 30 lbs. of thrust. These model rocket engines are quite reliable, and are designed to be fired electrically. Most model rocket engines have three basic sections. The diagram below will help explain them.
__________________________________________________________ |_________________________________________________________| -- cardboard \ clay | - - - - - - - - - - | * * * | . . . .|c| casing \_______| - - - - - - - - - | * * * | . . . |l| ______ _ - - - thrust - - - | smoke | eject |a| / clay | - - - - - - - - - | * * * | . . . .|y| /________|_____________________|_______|________|_|_______ |_________________________________________________________| -- cardboard casing
The clay nozzle is where the igniter is inserted. When the area labeled “thrust” is ignited, the “thrust” material, usually a large single grain of a propellant such as black powder or pyrodex, burns, forcing large volumes of hot, rapidly expanding gasses out the narrow nozzle, pushing the rocket forward. After the material has been consumed, the smoke section of the engine is ignited. It is usually a slow-burning material, similar to black powder that has had various compounds added to it to produce visible smoke, usually black, white, or yellow in color. This section exists so that the rocket will be seen when it reaches its maximum altitude, or apogee. When it is burned up, it ignites the ejection charge, labeled “eject”. The ejection charge is finely powdered black powder. It burns very rapidly, exploding, in effect. The explosion of the ejection charge pushes out the parachute of the model rocket. It could also be used to ignite the fuse of a bomb…
Rocket engines have their own peculiar labeling system. Typical engine labels are: 1/4A-2T, 1/2A-3T, A8-3, B6-4, C6-7, and D12-5. The letter is an indicator of the power of an engine. “B” engines are twice as powerful as “A” engines, and “C” engines are twice as powerful as “B” engines, and so on. The number following the letter is the approximate thrust of the engine, in pounds. the final number and letter is the time delay, from the time that the thrust period of engine burn ends until the ejection charge fires; “3T” indicates a 3 second delay.
NOTE: an extremely effective rocket propellant can be made by mixing aluminum dust with ammonium perchlorate and a very small amount of iron oxide. The mixture is bound together by an epoxy.
6.11 BASIC ROCKET BOMB
A rocket bomb is simply what the name implies: a bomb that is delivered to its target by means of a rocket. Most people who would make such a device would use a model rocket engine to power the device. By cutting fins from balsa wood and gluing them to a large rocket engine, such as the Estes “C” engine, a basic rocket could be constructed. Then, by attaching a “crater maker”, or CO2 cartridge bomb to the rocket, a bomb would be added. To insure that the fuse of the “crater maker” (see sect. 4.42) ignited, the clay over the ejection charge of the engine should be scraped off with a plastic tool. The fuse of the bomb should be touching the ejection charge, as shown below.
____________ rocket engine | _________ crater maker | | | | V | _______________________________V_ |_______________________________| ______________________ \ | - - - - - -|***|::::| /# # # # # # # # # # # \ \__| - - - - - -|***|::::| ___/ # # # # # # # # # # # \ __ - - - - - -|***|::::|---fuse--- # # explosive # # ) / | - - - - - -|***|::::| ___ # # # # # # # # # # # / /___|____________|___|____|____ \_______________________/ |_______________________________| thrust> - - - - - - smoke> *** ejection charge> ::::
Duct tape is the best way to attach the crater maker to the rocket engine. Note in the diagram the absence of the clay over the ejection charge Many different types of explosive payloads can be attached to the rocket, such as a high explosive, an incendiary device, or a chemical fire bottle.
Either four or three fins must be glued to the rocket engine to insure that the rocket flies straight. The fins should look like the following diagram:
|\ | \ | \ | \ <--------- glue this to rocket engine | \ | \ | \ | | | | | | leading edge | -------> | | | | | trailing edge | | <-------- | | | | | | | | \_____/
The leading edge and trailing edge should be sanded with sandpaper so that they are rounded. This will help make the rocket fly straight. A two inch long section of a plastic straw can be attached to the rocket to launch it from. A clothes hanger can be cut and made into a launch rod. The segment of a plastic straw should be glued to the rocket engine adjacent to one of the fins of the rocket. A front view of a completed rocket bomb is shown below.
| fin | <------ fin | | | | | | | __|__ | V / \ V ---------------| |--------------- \_____/ |o <----------- segment of plastic straw | | | <------ fin | |
By cutting a coat hanger at the indicated arrows, and bending it, a launch rod can be made. After a fuse is inserted in the engine, the rocket is simply slid down the launch rod, which is put through the segment of plastic straw. The rocket should slide easily along a coathanger, such as the one illustated here:
____ / \ | | cut here _____ | | | | | | / \ V / \ _________________/ \________________ / \ / \ /____________________________________________\ ^ | | and here ______| Bend wire to this shape: _______ insert into straw | | | V ____________________________________________ \ \ \ \ \ <--------- bend here to adjust flight angle | | | | | | <---------- put this end in ground |
6.12 LONG RANGE ROCKET BOMB
Long range rockets can be made by using multi-stage rockets. Model rocket engines with an “0” for a time delay are designed for use in multi- stage rockets. An engine such as the D12-0 is an excellent example of such an engine. Immediately after the thrust period is over, the ejection charge explodes. If another engine is placed directly against the back of an “0” engine, the explosion of the ejection charge will send hot gasses and burning particles into the nozzle of the engine above it, and ignite the thrust section. This will push the used “0” engine off of the rocket, causing an overall loss of weight. The main advantage of a multi-stage rocket is that it loses weight as travels, and it gains velocity. A multi-stage rocket must be designed somewhat differently than a single stage rocket, since, in order for a rocket to fly straight, its center of gravity must be ahead of its center of drag. This is accomplished by adding weight to the front of the rocket, or by moving the center of drag back by putting fins on the rocket that are well behind the rocket. A diagram of a multi-stage rocket appears on the following page:
___ / \ | | | C | | M | ------ CM: Crater Maker | | | | |___| | | | | | | | C | ------ C6-5 rocket engine /| 6 |\ / | | | \ / | 5 | \ / |___| \ ---- fin / /| |\ \ / / | | \ \ / / | | \ \ / / | C | \ \ | / | 6 | \ | | / | | | \ | | / | 0 | \ | |/ |___| \| | / \ | \______/ ^ \______/ ------- fin | | | | C6-0 rocket engine The fuse is put in the bottom engine.
Two, three, or even four stages can be added to a rocket bomb to give it a longer range. It is important, however, that for each additional stage, the fin area gets larger.
6.13 MULTIPLE WARHEAD ROCKET BOMBS
“M.R.V.” is an acronym for Multiple Reentry Vehicle. The concept is simple: put more than one explosive warhead on a single missile. This can be done without too much difficulty by anyone who knows how to make crater-makers and can buy rocket engines. By attaching crater makers with long fuses to a rocket, it is possible that a single rocket could deliver several explosive devices to a target. Such a rocket might look like the diagram on the following page:
___ / \ | | | C | | M | |___| ___| |___ | | | | | | T | | / \ | U | / \ / \| B |/ \ | || E || | | C || || C | | M || || M | | ||___|| | \___/| E |\___/ | N | /| G |\ / | I | \ / | N | \ / | E | \ / |___| \ / fin/ | \ fin\ | / | \ | \__/ | \__/ ^ |____ fin
The crater makers are attached to the tube of rolled paper with tape. the paper tube is made by rolling and gluing a 4 inch by 8 inch piece of paper. The tube is glued to the engine, and is filled with gunpowder or black powder. Small holes are punched in it, and the fuses of the crater makers are inserted in these holes. A crater maker is glued to the open end of the tube, so that its fuse is inside the tube. A fuse is inserted in the engine, or in the bottom engine if the rocket bomb is multi stage, and the rocket is launched from the coathanger launcher, if a segment of a plastic straw has been attached to it.
The cannon is a piece of artillery that has been in use since the 11th century. It is not unlike a musket, in that it is filled with powder, loaded, and fired. Cannons of this sort must also be cleaned after each shot, otherwise, the projectile may jam in the barrel when it is fired, causing the barrel to explode. A sociopath could build a cannon without too much trouble, if he/she had a little bit of money, and some patience.
6.21 BASIC PIPE CANNON
A simple cannon can be made from a thick pipe by almost anyone. The only difficult part is finding a pipe that is extremely smooth on its interior. This is absolutely necessary; otherwise, the projectile may jam. Copper or aluminum piping is usually smooth enough, but it must also be extremely thick to withstand the pressure developed by the expanding hot gasses in a cannon. If one uses a projectile such as a CO2 cartridge, since such a projectile can be made to explode, a pipe that is about 1.5 – 2 feet long is ideal. Such a pipe MUST have walls that are at least 1/3 to 1/2 an inch thick, and be very smooth on the interior. If possible, screw an endplug into the pipe. Otherwise, the pipe must be crimped and folded closed, without cracking or tearing the pipe. A small hole is drilled in the back of the pipe near the crimp or endplug. Then, all that need be done is fill the pipe with about two teaspoons of grade blackpowder or pyrodex, insert a fuse, pack it lightly by ramming a wad of tissue paper down the barrel, and drop in a CO2 cartridge. Brace the cannon securely against a strong structure, light the fuse, and run. If the person is lucky, he will not have overcharged the cannon, and he will not be hit by pieces of exploding barrel. Such a cannon would look like this:
__________________ fuse hole | | V ________________________________________________________________ | |______________________________________________________________| |endplug|powder|t.p.| CO2 cartridge | ______|______|____|____________________________________________ |_|______________________________________________________________|
An exploding projectile can be made for this type of cannon with a CO2 cartridge. It is relatively simple to do. Just make a crater maker, and construct it such that the fuse projects about an inch from the end of the cartridge. Then, wrap the fuse with duct tape, covering it entirely, except for a small amount at the end. Put this in the pipe cannon without using a tissue paper packing wad. When the cannon is fired, it will ignite the end of the fuse, and shoot the CO2 cartridge. The explosive-filled cartridge will explode in about three seconds, if all goes well. Such a projectile would look like this:
___ / \ | | | C | | M | | | | | |\ /| | | | ---- tape |_|_| | | ------ fuse
6.22 ROCKET FIRING CANNON
A rocket firing cannon can be made exactly like a normal cannon; the only difference is the ammunition. A rocket fired from a cannon will fly further than a rocket alone, since the action of shooting it overcomes the initial inertia. A rocket that is launched when it is moving will go further than one that is launched when it is stationary. Such a rocket would resemble a normal rocket bomb, except it would have no fins. It would look like this:
___ / \ | | | C | | M | | | | | |___| | E | | N | | G | | I | | N | | E | |___|
the fuse on such a device would, obviously, be short, but it would not be ignited until the rocket’s ejection charge exploded. Thus, the delay before the ejection charge, in effect, becomes the delay before the bomb explodes. Note that no fuse need be put in the rocket; the burning powder in the cannon will ignite it, and simultaneously push the rocket out of the cannon at a high velocity.
7.0 PYROTECHNICA ERRATA
There are many other types of pyrotechnics that a perpetrator of violence might employ. Smoke bombs can be purchased in magic stores, and large military smoke bombs can be bought through adds in gun and military magazines. Also, fireworks can also be used as weapons of terror. A large aerial display rocket would cause many injuries if it were to be fired so that it landed on the ground near a crowd of people. Even the “harmless” pull-string fireworks, which consists of a sort of firecracker that explodes when the strings running through it are pulled, could be placed inside a large charge of a sensitive high explosive. Tear gas is another material that might well be useful to the sociopath, and such a material could be instantly disseminated over a large crowd by means of a rocket-bomb, with nasty effects.
7.1 SMOKE BOMBS
One type of pyrotechnic device that might be employed by a terrorist in many way would be a smoke bomb. Such a device could conceal the getaway route, or cause a diversion, or simply provide cover. Such a device, were it to produce enough smoke that smelled bad enough, could force the evacuation of a building, for example. Smoke bombs are not difficult to make. Although the military smoke bombs employ powdered white phosphorus or titanium compounds, such materials are usually unavailable to even the most well-equipped terrorist. Instead, he/she would have to make the smoke bomb for themselves.
Most homemade smoke bombs usually employ some type of base powder, such as black powder or pyrodex, to support combustion. The base material will burn well, and provide heat to cause the other materials in the device to burn, but not completely or cleanly. Table sugar, mixed with sulfur and a base material, produces large amounts of smoke. Sawdust, especially if it has a small amount of oil in it, and a base powder works well also. Other excellent smoke ingredients are small pieces of rubber, finely ground plastics, and many chemical mixtures. The material in road flares can be mixed with sugar and sulfur and a base powder produces much smoke. Most of the fuel-oxodizer mixtures, if the ratio is not correct, produce much smoke when added to a base powder. The list of possibilities goes on and on. The trick to a successful smoke bomb also lies in the container used. A plastic cylinder works well, and contributes to the smoke produced. The hole in the smoke bomb where the fuse enters must be large enough to allow the material to burn without causing an explosion. This is another plus for plastic containers, since they will melt and burn when the smoke material ignites, producing an opening large enough to prevent an explosion.
7.2 COLORED FLAMES
Colored flames can often be used as a signaling device for terrorists. by putting a ball of colored flame material in a rocket; the rocket, when the ejection charge fires, will send out a burning colored ball. The materials that produce the different colors of flames appear below.
COLOR MATERIAL USED IN ----- -------- ------- _______________________________________________________________________________ red strontium road flares, salts red sparklers (strontium nitrate) _______________________________________________________________________________ green barium salts green sparklers (barium nitrate) _______________________________________________________________________________ yellow sodium salts gold sparklers (sodium nitrate) _______________________________________________________________________________ blue powdered copper blue sparklers, old pennies _______________________________________________________________________________ white powdered magnesium firestarters, or aluminum aluminum foil _______________________________________________________________________________ purple potassium permanganate purple fountains, treating sewage -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.3 TEAR GAS
A terrorist who could make tear gas or some similar compound could use it with ease against a large number of people. Tear gas is fairly complicated to make, however, and this prevents such individuals from being able to utilize its great potential for harm. One method for its preparation is shown below.
EQUIPMENT _________ 1. ring stands (2) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2.) Light the alcohol burner, and gently heat the flask. 3.) The mixture will begin to bubble and froth; these bubbles are tear gas. 4.) When the mixture being heated ceases to froth and generate gas, or a brown residue becomes visible in the tube, the reaction is complete. Remove the heat source, and dispose of the heated mixture, as it is corrosive. 5.) The material that condenses in the condenser and drips into the collecting flask is tear gas. It must be capped tightly, and stored in a safe place.
While fireworks cannot really be used as an effective means of terror, they do have some value as distractions or incendiaries. There are several basic types of fireworks that can be made in the home, whether for fun, profit, or nasty uses.
A simple firecracker can be made from cardboard tubing and epoxy. The instructions are below:
An impressive home made skyrocket can easily be made in the home from model rocket engines. Estes engines are recommended.
7.43 ROMAN CANDLES
Roman candles are impressive to watch. They are relatively difficult to make, compared to the other types of home-made fireworks, but they are well worth the trouble.
8.0 LISTS OF SUPPLIERS AND MORE INFORMATION
Most, if not all, of the information in this publication can be obtained through a public or university library. There are also many publications that are put out by people who want to make money by telling other people how to make explosives at home. Adds for such appear frequently in paramilitary magazines and newspapers. This list is presented to show the large number of places that information and materials can be purchased from. It also includes fireworks companies and the like.
COMPANY NAME AND ADDRESS WHAT COMPANY SELLS ------------------------ ------------------ FULL AUTO CO. INC. EXPLOSIVE RECIPES, P.O. BOX 1881 PAPER TUBING MURFREESBORO, TN 37133 _______________________________________________________________________________ UNLIMITED CHEMICALS AND FUSE BOX 1378-SN HERMISTON, OREGON 97838 _______________________________________________________________________________ AMERICAN FIREWORKS NEWS FIREWORKS NEWS MAGAZINE WITH SR BOX 30 SOURCES AND TECHNIQUES DINGMAN'S FERRY, PENNSYLVANIA 18328
EXECUTIVE PROTECTION PRODUCTS INC. TEAR GAS GRENADES,
316 CALIFORNIA AVE. PROTECTION DEVICES
BADGER FIREWORKS CO. INC. CLASS “B” AND “C” FIREWORKS
NEW ENGLAND FIREWORKS CO. INC. CLASS “C” FIREWORKS
P.O. BOX 3504
RAINBOW TRAIL CLASS “C” FIREWORKS
STONINGTON FIREWORKS INC. CLASS “C” AND “B” FIREWORKS
4010 NEW WILSEY BAY U.25 ROAD
RAPID RIVER, MICHIGAN
WINDY CITY FIREWORKS INC. CLASS “C” AND “B” FIREWORKS
P.O. BOX 11 (GOOD PRICES!)
THE ANARCHIST’S COOKBOOK
THE IMPROVISED MUNITIONS MANUAL
FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS
9.0 CHECKLIST FOR RAIDS ON LABS
In the end, the serious terrorist would probably realize that if he/she wishes to make a truly useful explosive, he or she will have to steal the chemicals to make the explosive from a lab. A list of such chemicals in order of priority would probably resemble the following:
LIQUIDS SOLIDS _______ ______ ____ Nitric Acid ____ Potassium Perchlorate ____ Sulfuric Acid ____ Potassium Chlorate ____ 95% Ethanol ____ Picric Acid (usually a powder) ____ Toluene ____ Ammonium Nitrate ____ Perchloric Acid ____ Powdered Magnesium ____ Hydrochloric Acid ____ Powdered Aluminum ____ Potassium Permanganate ____ Sulfur ____ Mercury ____ Potassium Nitrate ____ Potassium Hydroxide ____ Phosphorus ____ Sodium Azide ____ Lead Acetate ____ Barium Nitrate
10.0 USEFUL PYROCHEMISTRY
In general, it is possible to make many chemicals from just a few basic ones. A list of useful chemical reactions is presented. It assumes knowledge of general chemistry; any individual who does not understand the following reactions would merely have to read the first five chapters of a high school chemistry book.
1. potassium perchlorate from perchloric acid and potassium hydroxide K(OH) + HClO ----> KClO + H O 4 4 2 2. potassium nitrate from nitric acid and potassium hydroxide " + HNO ----> KNO + " 3 3 3. ammonium perchlorate from perchloric acid and ammonium hydroxide NH OH + HClO ----> NH ClO + " 3 4 3 4 4. ammonium nitrate from nitric acid and ammonium hydroxide NH OH + HNO ----> NH NO + " 3 3 3 3 5. powdered aluminum from acids, aluminum foil, and magnesium A. aluminum foil + 6HCl ----> 2AlCl + 3H 3 2 B. 2AlCl (aq) + 3Mg ----> 3MgCl (aq) + 2Al 3 2
The Al will be a very fine silvery powder at the bottom of the container which must be filtered and dried. This same method works with nitric and sulfuric acids, but these acids are too valuable in the production of high explosives to use for such a purpose, unless they are available in great excess.
11.0 ABOUT THE AUTHOR
The author, who wishes his name to be unknown, is presently attending a college in the United States of America, majoring in Engineering. He was raised by his parents on the East Coast, and received his high school education there. He first became interested in pyrotechnics when he was about eight years of age. At age twelve, he produced his first explosive device; it was slightly more powerful than a large firecracker. He continued to produce explosive devices for several years. He also became interested in model rocketry, and has built several rockets from kits, and designed his own rockets. While in high school, the author became affiliated with CHAOS, and eventually became the head of Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies. At this time, at age 18, he produced his first high explosive device, putting a 1 foot deep crater in an associate’s back yard. He had also produced many types of rockets, explosive ammunition, and other pyrotechnic devices. While he was heading Gunzenbomz Pyro- Technologies, he was injured when a home made device exploded in his hand; he did not make the device. The author learned, however, and then decided to reform, and although he still constructs an occasional explosive device, he chooses to abstain from their production. An occasional rocket that produces effects similar to that of professional displays can sometimes be seen in the midnight sky near his college, and the Fourth of July is still his favorite day of the year.
Pax et Discordia,
HERE ENDS THE FIRST PUBLICATION OF THE TERRORIST’S HANDBOOK. THIS IS THE ONLY AUTHORIZED PUBLICATION, AND THE SOLE PRODUCTION RIGHTS BELONG TO CHAOS INDUSTRIES AND GUNZENBOMZ PYRO-TECHNOLOGIES.
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